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1) | IMP 8 MIT Full Resolution Definitive Interplanetary Plasma Data | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/IMP8/PLS/PT01M | ||||||||||||||||||

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The MIT Faraday cup experiment on IMP 8 measures currents from solar wind ions, and from these measurements we calculate the velocity, density, and temperature of the solar wind. The IMP 8 data files consist of fine resolution data (approximately 1 minute resolution). IMP 8 spins with a period of approximately 2.7s. The Faraday Cup (FC) instrument scans the solar wind distribution stepping through a contiguous set of energy windows, one step per spacecraft spin. The FC instrument divides the spin into thirty-two, 11.25 degree angular sectors and integrates the measured currents over different angular sectors depending upon the Mode in which the instrument is operating. The border between two of the 11.25 degree angular sectors lies on the Sun-spacecraft line. The FC sensor collector plate is divided into two, semi-circular halves; the division line is parallel to the spacecraft spin plane which is approximately parallel to the ecliptic plane. The split collector allow determination of the bulk plasma flow relative to the spin plane; North/South angles refer to flows coming from above or below the spin plane respectively (flows from the South are designated as having a positive N/S angle). The bulk flow angle in the spin plane is determined from the measurements of current vs. rotation angle. The currents telemetered to the ground are the sums of currents for the two half-collectors ("A" and "B") and, for the TMS and AQM modes, also the current for the half-collector "B". Electrons are measured except for the eight angles near the Sun. The experiment has two memories only one of which is operating perfectly. As a result, only every other TMS spectrum is usable, and the time between spectra is usually twice that that would be expected from the spacecraft spin rate. The bad half-memory also limits the energy windows that can be used in the other modes, since they require both memories to hold the data. On occasion, the data are read out rapidly enough by the spacecraft to allow repeated use of the good half-memory, and the time resolution in the TMS is approximately 32 seconds. |

2) | VOYAGER 1 SOLAR WIND PLS 1 HOUR AVERAGES V1.0 | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Heliosphere/PT1H | ||||||||||||||||||

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Voyager 1 plasma data of the solar wind, 1 hour averages. The files in this directory contain the Voyager hourly average plasma data. The plasma parameters are obtained by finding the best fit of a convected isotropic Maxwellian distribution to the data. One sigma errors are typically less than 0.5% in the speed and VR, less than 5% for the density and thermal speed, and vary greatly for VT and VN. Sampling times range from 12 to 192 sec., with sampling generally more frequent early in the mission. The columns are: 1) Year 2) day of year (day 1 is Jan. 1) 3) hour 4) proton speed in km/s (magnitude of V) 5) proton density in cm-3 6) proton thermal speed in km/s (proton temperature in eV = .0052 times the square of the thermal speed) 7) VR 8) VT (WARNING: this parameter is often NOT reliable after 1989) 9) VN (WARNING: this parameter is often NOT reliable after 1989) The velocity components are given in the RTN coordinate system, where R is radially outward, T is in a plane parallel to the solar equatorial plane and positive in the direction of solar rotation, and N completes a right-handed system. Please consult with us, or at least send preprints, when you use this data to prevent grievous errors or misconceptions. (John Richardson, jdr@space.mit.edu) |

3) | VOYAGER 1 SOLAR WIND PLS FINE RES V1.0 | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Heliosphere/PT96S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Voyager 1 plasma data of the solar wind, fine resolution data. The files in this directory contain the Voyager fine resolution plasma data. The plasma parameters are obtained by finding the best fit of a convected isotropic Maxwellian distribution to the data. One sigma errors are typically less than 0.5 percent in the speed and VR, less than 5 percent for the density and thermal speed, and vary greatly for VT and VN. Sampling times range from 12 to 192 sec., with sampling generally more frequent early in the mission. The columns are: 1) Year 2) day of year (day 1 is Jan. 1) 3) decimal hour 4) proton speed in km/s (magnitude of V) 5) proton density in cm-3 6) proton thermal speed in km/s (proton temperature in eV = .0052 times the square of the thermal speed) 7) VR 8) VT (WARNING: this parameter is often NOT reliable after 1989) 9) VN (WARNING: this parameter is often NOT reliable after 1989) The velocity components are given in the RTN coordinate system, where R is radially outward, T is in a plane parallel to the solar equatorial plane and positive in the direction of solar rotation, and N completes a right-handed system. Please consult with us, or at least send preprints, when you use this data to prevent grievous errors or misconceptions. (John Richardson, jdr@space.mit.edu) |

4) | VG1 JUP PLS PLASMA DERIVED ION MOMENTS 96.0 SEC V1.1 | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Jupiter/PT96.0S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Data Set Overview ================= Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-PLS-5-ION-MOM-96.0SEC) previously archived with the PDS. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set contains the best estimates of the total ion density at Jupiter during the Voyager 1 encounter in the PLS voltage range (10-5950 eV/Q). It is calculated using the method of [MCNUTTETAL1981] which to first order consists of taking the total measured current and dividing by the collector area and plasma bulk velocity. This method is only accurate for high mach number flows directly into the detector, and may result in underestimates of the total density of a factor of 2 in the outer magnetosphere. Thus absolute densities should be treated with caution, but density variations in the data set can be trusted. The low resolution mode density is used before 1979 63 1300, after this the larger of the high and low resolution mode densities in a 96 sec period is used since the L-mode spectra often are saturated. Corotation is assumed inside L=17.5, and a constant velocity component of 200 km/s into the D cup is used outside of this. These are the densities given in [MCNUTTETAL1981] corrected by a factor of 1.209 (.9617) for densities obtained from the side (main) sensor. This correction is due to a better calculation of the effective area of the sensors. Data format: column 1 is time (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ), column 2 is the moment density in cm^-3. Each row has format (a24, 1x, 1pe9.2). Values of -9.99e+10 indicate that the parameter could not be obtained from the data using the standard analysis technique. Additional information about this data set and the instrument which produced it can be found elsewhere in this catalog. An overview of the data in this data set can be found in [MCNUTTETAL1981] and a complete instrument description can be found in [BRIDGEETAL1977]. Processing Level Id : 5 Software Flag : Y Parameters ========== Ion Density ----------- Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Sampling Parameter Resolution : 96.000000 Sampling Parameter Interval : 96.000000 Minimum Available Sampling Int : 96.000000 Data Set Parameter Unit : EV Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND A derived parameter equaling the number of ions per unit volume over a specified range of ion energy, energy/charge, or energy/nucleon. Discrimination with regard to mass and or charge state is necessary to obtain this quantity, however, mass and charge state are often assumed due to instrument limitations. Many different forms of ion density are derived. Some are distinguished by their composition (N+, proton, ion, etc.) or their method of derivation (Maxwellian fit, method of moments). In some cases, more than one type of density will be provided in a single data set. In general, if more than one ion species is analyzed, either by moment or fit, a total density will be provided which is the sum of the ion densities. If a plasma component does not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, in which case the density of each Maxwellian is given. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE ION CURRENT PARTICLE MULTIPLE PARAMETERS Important Instrument Parameters : 1 (for all parameters) Processing ========== Processing History ------------------ Source Data Set ID : VG1-PLS Software : MOMANAL Product Data Set ID : VG1-J-PLS-5-ION-MOM-96.0SEC Software 'MOMANAL' ------------------ Software |

5) | VG1 JUP PLS DERIVED ION OUTBND MAGSHTH M-MODE 96SEC V1.0 | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Jupiter/PT96S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : John D. Richardson Data Supplier : John D. Richardson Data sampling rate : 96 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-03-13T00:01:43.491Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-24T23:20:06.519Z This data set contains plasma parameters from Voyager 1 outbound from Jupiter from the magnetotail through the solar wind. Fit and moment parameters are given; the fit parameters assume a single, isotropic convected proton Maxwellian distribution. Although magnetotail data is provided, these data are unreliable; the density can be used as an upper limit to the actual density. Solar wind data are also provided and are reliable. These M mode data are the best data to use in most regions of the magnetosheath. Magnetotail data in this data set are included mainly to put the sheath data in context and show magnetopause. Parameters ========== Data Set Parameter 'ION DENSITY' -------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Data Set Parameter Unit : CM**-3 Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter equaling the number of ions per unit volume over a specified range of ion energy, energy/charge, or energy/nucleon. Discrimination with regard to mass and or charge state is necessary to obtain this quantity, however, mass and charge state are often assumed due to instrument limitations. Many different forms of ion density are derived. Some are distinguished by their composition (N+, proton, ion, etc.) or their method of derivation (Maxwellian fit, method of moments). In some cases, more than one type of density will be provided in a single data set. In general, if more than one ion species is analyzed, either by moment or fit, a total density will be provided which is the sum of the ion densities. If a plasma component does not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, in which case the density of each Maxwellian is given. Data Set Parameter 'ION THERMAL SPEED' -------------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A measure of the velocity associated with the temperature of the ions. It is formally defined as the Ion Thermal Speed squared equals two times K (Boltzmann's constant) times T (temperature of ion) divided by M (ion mass). Each component of a plasma has a thermal speed associated with it. Data Set Parameter 'ION VELOCITY' --------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION VELOCITY Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter giving the average speed and direction of motion of a plasma or plasma component. The velocity can be obtained by taking the first moment of the distribution function or by simulating the observations with some known distribution function, usually a Maxwellian, to the distribution. Velocities are given in heliographic (RTN) coordinates: R is radially away from sun, T is in plane of sun's equator and positive in the direction of solar rotation, N completes right-handed system. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION VELOCITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : PARTICLE MULTIPLE PARAMETERS Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Data Coverage ============= Filename Records Start Stop ------------------------------------------------------------------- T79072 10232 1979-03-13T00:01:43.491Z 1979-03-24T23:20:06.519Z |

6) | VG1 SAT PLS DERIVED ION SOLAR WIND BROWSE 96SEC V1.0 | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Saturn/PT96S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : John D. Richardson Data Supplier : John D. Richardson Data sampling rate : 96 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1981-08-19T00:00:09.229Z Data Set Stop Time : 1981-09-04T02:51:21.885Z This data set contains solar wind plasma browse data near the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter. Moment parameters are given. Since only the first 72 or last 72 energy/charge channels are telemetered to Earth from each M-mode spectra, derived parameters change significantly only every other set of spectra so the effective time resolution is 96 second. Parameters ========== Data Set Parameter 'ION DENSITY' -------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Data Set Parameter Unit : CM**-3 Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter equaling the number of ions per unit volume over a specified range of ion energy, energy/charge, or energy/nucleon. Discrimination with regard to mass and or charge state is necessary to obtain this quantity, however, mass and charge state are often assumed due to instrument limitations. Many different forms of ion density are derived. Some are distinguished by their composition (N+, proton, ion, etc.) or their method of derivation (Maxwellian fit, method of moments). In some cases, more than one type of density will be provided in a single data set. In general, if more than one ion species is analyzed, either by moment or fit, a total density will be provided which is the sum of the ion densities. If a plasma component does not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, in which case the density of each Maxwellian is given. Data Set Parameter 'ION TEMPERATURE' ------------------------------------ Data Set Parameter Name : ION TEMPERATURE Data Set Parameter Unit : EV Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter giving an indication of the mean energy/ion, assuming the shape of the ion energy spectrum to be Maxwellian. Given that the ion energy spectrum is not exactly Maxwellian, the ion temperature can be defined integrally (whereby the mean energy obtained by integrating under the actual ion energy spectrum is set equal to the integral under a Maxwellian, where the temperature is a free parameter for which to solve), or differentially (whereby the slopes of the actually ion energy spectrum at various energies are matched to the slopes of a corresponding Maxwellian). The temperature parameter is often qualified with a range of applicable energies. Temperatures can be angularly anisotropic. If the ions do not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, each with a separate temperature. Data Set Parameter 'ION THERMAL SPEED' -------------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A measure of the velocity associated with the temperature of the ions. It is formally defined as the Ion Thermal Speed squared equals two times K (Boltzmann's constant) times T (temperature of ion) divided by M (ion mass). Each component of a plasma has a thermal speed associated with it. Data Set Parameter 'ION VELOCITY' --------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION VELOCITY Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND |

7) | IMP-8 Linearly Interpolated 60 s Resolution PLS data in GSE Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/IMP8/PLS/Processed/GSE/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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IMP-8 linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution PLS data in GSE coordinates. This data set consists of processed solar wind data that has been linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution at the position of the spacecraft using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies and cross correlation studies on solar wind. |

8) | IMP-8 Linearly Interpolated 60 s Resolution PLS data in GSM Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/IMP8/PLS/Processed/GSM/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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IMP-8 linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution PLS data in GSM coordinates. This data set consists of processed solar wind data that has been linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution at the position of the spacecraft using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies and cross correlation studies on solar wind. |

9) | Wind SWE Linearly Interpolated 60 s Resolution data in GSE Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/Wind/SWE/Processed/GSE/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Wind linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution SWE data in GSE coordinates. This data set consists of processed solar wind data that has been linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution at the position of the spacecraft using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies and cross correlation studies on solar wind. |

10) | Wind SWE Linearly Interpolated 60 s Resolution data in GSM Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/Wind/SWE/Processed/GSM/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Wind linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution SWE data in GSM coordinates. This data set consists of processed solar wind data that has been linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution at the position of the spacecraft using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies and cross correlation studies on solar wind. |

11) | Wind SWE Weimer Propagated 60 s Resolution data in GSE Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/Wind/SWE/Propagated.SWE/GSE/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Wind SWE propagated solar wind data and linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution data in GSE coordinates. This data set consists of propagated solar wind data that has first been propagated to a position just outside of the nominal bow shock (about 17, 0, 0 Re) and then linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. The input data for this data set is a 1 min resolution processed solar wind data constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand. The method of propagation is similar to the minimum variance technique and is outlined in Dan Weimer et al. [2003; 2004]. The basic method is to find the minimum variance direction of the magnetic field in the plane orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction. This minimum variance direction is then dotted with the difference between final position vector minus the original position vector and the quantity is divided by the minimum variance dotted with the solar wind velocity vector, which gives the propagation time. This method does not work well for shocks and minimum variance directions with tilts greater than 70 degrees of the sun-earth line. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies References: Weimer, D. R. (2004), Correction to ??Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique,?? J. Geophys. Res., 109, A12104, doi:10.1029/2004JA010691. Weimer, D.R., D.M. Ober, N.C. Maynard, M.R. Collier, D.J. McComas, N.F. Ness, C. W. Smith, and J. Watermann (2003), Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1026, doi:10.1029/2002JA009405. |

12) | Wind SWE Weimer Propagated 60 s Resolution data in GSM Coordinates | |||||||||||||||||
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Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Weygand/Wind/SWE/Propagated.SWE/GSM/PT60S | ||||||||||||||||||

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Wind SWE propagated solar wind data and linearly interpolated to have the measurements on the minute at 60 s resolution data in GSM coordinates. This data set consists of propagated solar wind data that has first been propagated to a position just outside of the nominal bow shock (about 17, 0, 0 Re) and then linearly interpolated to 1 min resolution using the interp1.m function in MATLAB. The input data for this data set is a 1 min resolution processed solar wind data constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand. The method of propagation is similar to the minimum variance technique and is outlined in Dan Weimer et al. [2003; 2004]. The basic method is to find the minimum variance direction of the magnetic field in the plane orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction. This minimum variance direction is then dotted with the difference between final position vector minus the original position vector and the quantity is divided by the minimum variance dotted with the solar wind velocity vector, which gives the propagation time. This method does not work well for shocks and minimum variance directions with tilts greater than 70 degrees of the sun-earth line. This data set was originally constructed by Dr. J.M. Weygand for Prof. R.L. McPherron, who was the principle investigator of two National Science Foundation studies: GEM Grant ATM 02-1798 and a Space Weather Grant ATM 02-08501. These data were primarily used in superposed epoch studies References: Weimer, D. R. (2004), Correction to ??Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique,?? J. Geophys. Res., 109, A12104, doi:10.1029/2004JA010691. Weimer, D.R., D.M. Ober, N.C. Maynard, M.R. Collier, D.J. McComas, N.F. Ness, C. W. Smith, and J. Watermann (2003), Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1026, doi:10.1029/2002JA009405. |

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