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1) Cassini RPWS Key Parameter 60S maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Cassini/RPWS/KP_PT60S
Start:1997-10-25 00:00:00 Observatory:Cassini Cadence:60 seconds
Stop:2014-02-22 01:03:42 Instrument:Cassini RPWS Resource:NumericalData
The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) calibrated summary key parameter data set includes reduced temporal and spectral resolution spectral information calibrated in units of spectral density for the entire Cassini mission. This data set includes calibrated values binned and averaged within 1 minute by 0.1 decade spectral channels for all times during the mission including the two Venus flybys, the Earth flyby, the Jupiter flyby, interplanetary cruise, and the entire Saturn tour. Data for this data set are acquired by the RPWS Low Frequency Receiver (LFR), Medium Frequency Receiver (MFR), and High Frequency Receiver (HFR). Data are presented in a set of fixed-record-length tables. This data set is intended to provide numerical summary data which can be used in conjunction with other Cassini fields and particles key parameter data sets to establish trends, select events, or simply as a browse data set for the Cassini RPWS archive. This data set should be among the first used by a user of any of the RPWS archive as it will lead one to information required to search for more detailed or highly specialized products.

2) Cassini RPWS Low Rate Full Resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Cassini/RPWS/LRFULL_PT32S
Start:1997-10-25 00:00:00 Observatory:Cassini Cadence:32 seconds
Stop:2014-02-22 01:03:42 Instrument:Cassini RPWS Resource:NumericalData
The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Low Rate Full Resolution Calibrated (RPWS_LOW_RATE_FULL) is a data set including all spectral density measurements acquired by the RPWS in units of electric or magnetic field spectral density. This data set includes calibrated values for each frequency channel for each sensor for all times during the mission including the two Venus flybys, the Earth flyby, the Jupiter flyby, interplanetary cruise, and the entire Saturn tour. Data for this data set are acquired from the RPWS Low Frequency Receiver (LFR), Medium Frequency Receiver (MFR), Medium Frequency Digital Receiver (MFDR) (which can be used to replace MFR band 2 data) and High Frequency Receiver (HFR). Data are presented in a set of tables organized so as to have fixed-length records for ease in data handling. This data set is intended to be the most comprehensive and complete data set included in the Cassini RPWS archive. A browse data set is included with these data which provides for a graphical search of the data using a series of thumbnail and full-sized spectrograms which lead the user to the particular data file(s) of interest. This data set should be among the first used by a user of any of the RPWS archive as it will lead one to information required to search for more detailed or highly specialized products.

3) Galileo PWS Summary Electric Field Dataset maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Galileo/PWS/Summary.Electric
Start:1995-12-07 15:21:00 Observatory:Galileo Cadence:60 seconds
Stop:2003-09-21 18:45:00 Instrument:Galileo PWS Resource:NumericalData
This data set includes 1-minute averages of the electric and magnetic wave spectra obtained during the period that the Galileo plasma wave receiver was operated during the Jupiter orbital mission (prime, GEM and GMM). The parameter provided for the electric field spectrum is the electric field spectral density in units of V**2/m**2/Hz. The magnetic field spectrum is provided in units of magnetic field spectral density, nT**2/Hz. The spectral information is averaged and binned into 49 logarithmically-spaced channels from about 6 Hz to 5.6 MHz for the electric measurements and 34 channels from about 6 Hz to 75 kHz for the magnetic. Note that these 'channels' do not generally correspond to the 158 specific channels described in the instrument description document. The reduction in spectral resolution for this data set was performed in order to make the set more conducive to use as a browse data set. The sources of this browse data set are the High Frequency Receiver, Sweep Frequency Receiver, and Spectrum Analyzer which make up the Low Rate Science portion of the PWS.

4) Galileo PWS Summary Magnetic Field Dataset maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Galileo/PWS/Summary.Magnetic
Start:1995-12-07 15:21:00 Observatory:Galileo Cadence:60 seconds
Stop:2003-09-21 18:45:00 Instrument:Galileo PWS Resource:NumericalData
This data set includes 1-minute averages of the electric and magnetic wave spectra obtained during the period that the Galileo plasma wave receiver was operated during the Jupiter orbital mission (prime, GEM and GMM). The parameter provided for the electric field spectrum is the electric field spectral density in units of V**2/m**2/Hz. The magnetic field spectrum is provided in units of magnetic field spectral density, nT**2/Hz. The spectral information is averaged and binned into 49 logarithmically-spaced channels from about 6 Hz to 5.6 MHz for the electric measurements and 34 channels from about 6 Hz to 75 kHz for the magnetic. Note that these 'channels' do not generally correspond to the 158 specific channels described in the instrument description document. The reduction in spectral resolution for this data set was performed in order to make the set more conducive to use as a browse data set. The sources of this browse data set are the High Frequency Receiver, Sweep Frequency Receiver, and Spectrum Analyzer which make up the Low Rate Science portion of the PWS.

5) STEREO WAVES (SWAVES) PDF Dynamic Spectrogram Plots both Ahead and Behind s/c maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/DisplayData/STEREO/SWAVES/DS.Color.PDF.P1D
Start:2006-10-27 20:24:42 Observatory:STEREO A Cadence:1 minute
Stop:2014-12-19 01:03:41 Instrument:STEREO-A Waves (SWAVES) Resource:DisplayData
This dataset contains 24 hour duration dynamic spectrogram plots from the combined STEREO A and B Waves instrument. The plots are provided in several file formats (PNG, Postscript and PDF) and there are renditions in color and grayscale with and without additional lines of time series data indicating the instrument operating status. These plots all reside within the same directory structure subdivided by year. The "new" subdirectory contain plots at a higher resolution but currently are not available for dates early in the mission. These data consist of output from the SWAVES HFR and LFR receivers. ? the High Frequency Receivers (HFR) - for spectral analysis and direction finding of radio noise generated from a few solar radii (16 MHz) to about half an Astronomical Unit (125 kHz) ? the Low Frequency Receiver (LFR) - for spectral analysis and direction finding from about half an Astronomical Unit (160 kHz) to one AU (2.5 kHz).

6) STEREO WAVES (SWAVES) Radio Intensity Spectra, both Ahead and Behind s/c maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/STEREO/SWAVES/DS.Combined.PT1M
Start:2006-10-27 20:24:42 Observatory:STEREO A Cadence:1 minute
Stop:2014-12-19 01:03:43 Instrument:STEREO-A Waves (SWAVES) Resource:NumericalData
The CDF file contains 1 minute averaged radio intensity data from both the Ahead and Behind s/c. A description of the STEREO/WAVES instrument is provided in: Bougeret, J.L, et al. (2008), S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission, Space Science Reviews, 136, 487-528. The STEREO / WAVES (SWAVES) instruments provide unique and critical observations for all primary science objectives of the STEREO mission, the generation of CMEs, their evolution, and their interaction with Earth's magnetosphere. SWAVES can probe a CME from lift-off to Earth by detecting the coronal and interplanetary (IP) shock of the most powerful CMEs, providing a radial profile through spectral imaging, determining the radial velocity from ~2 RS (from center of sun) to Earth, measuring the density of the volume of the heliosphere between the sun and Earth, and measuring important in situ properties of the IP shock, magnetic cloud, and density compression in the fast solar wind stream that follows. SWAVES measures the fluctuation electric field present on three orthogonal monopole antennas mounted on the back (anti-sunward) surface of the spacecraft. Each monopole antenna unit is a 6 m long Beryllium-Copper (BeCu) ?stacer? spring. The three units deploy from a common baseplate that also accommodates the preamplifier housing. The 6 m length was chosen to put the antenna quarter-wave resonance near the top of the SWAVES HFR2 frequency band. These data consist of output from the SWAVES HFR and LFR receivers. ? the High Frequency Receivers (HFR) - for spectral analysis and direction finding of radio noise generated from a few solar radii (16 MHz) to about half an Astronomical Unit (125 kHz) ? the Low Frequency Receiver (LFR) - for spectral analysis and direction finding from about half an Astronomical Unit (160 kHz) to one AU (2.5 kHz).

7) Ulysses URAP Daily Color Dynamic Spectrogram Plot maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/DisplayData/Ulysses/URAP/DS.P1D
Start:1990-11-03 19:30:00 Observatory:Ulysses Cadence:128 seconds
Stop:2007-11-26 18:30:00 Instrument:Unified Radio and Plasma Waves (STO/URAP) Resource:DisplayData
from URAP Users Notes: Guide To The Archiving Of Ulysses Radio And Plasma Wave Data by Roger Hess, Robert MacDowall, Denise Lengyel-Frey March 15, 1995 - version 1.0 revised March 24, 1999 - version 1.1 revised June 8, 1999 - version 1.2 These color plots present URAP radio and plasma wave data in a format referred to as dynamic spectra. For the daily plots, the time resolution is 128 seconds, providing high-time resolution across the entire frequency range of the URAP receivers. The 10-day plots use 10-minute resolution data, which permits good detection of bursty wave activity. The 26-day plots use 1-hour resolution data; these plots correspond to the other Ulysses 26-day plot intervals, but the ability to identify wave activity is reduced. The power of the electric or magnetic field is shown in color as a 2-dimensional function of time and frequency. The plots include data from the URAP Radio Astronomy Receivers (RAR), Plasma Frequency Receiver (PFR), and Waveform Analyzer (WFA). Refer to the documentation for the 10-minute average archive data files, as well as Stone et al. (1992), for more general information on these instruments. Here, we describe the choices that were made in generating these plots. 1. Formats - These plots are available in 2 formats: GIF files for viewing with a web browser and Postscript files for high quality printed copies. The resolution of the GIF files is 776 x 600 pixels, a compromise between smaller size for network transfer and larger size for improved resolution. The Postscript files are sized to fit both 8.5x11 inch paper or A4 paper. The daily unzipped (zipped) Postscript files are typically 400-440 kB ( 130-140 KB) in size; the daily GIF files are typically 200-230 kB in size. (The 10-day and 26-day plots are similar in size.) 2. Data units - The data and the associated color bar are plotted in units of decibels, an old radio astronomer unit for describing signal to background ratio on a logarithmic scale. Specifically, Data_in_dB = 10. * log10(total power/background power) The data for electric field observations are in units of microvolts**2 Hz**(-1) as are the calculated background levels. The units for magnetic field observations (the bottom panels on the page) are nT**2 Hz**(-1). The data for the 1-day plots are comparable to the squared values of data in the URAP UFA 10-minute files. Although the ratio (total power-background power)/background power permits one to see weaker events in such plots, it is more sensitive to background determination and enhances the noise seen in the plots. Therefore, it is not used here. 3. Backgrounds - The background levels as a function of frequency for the RAR and WFA are determined from the data for the day, because they vary throughout the mission. The PFR background does not vary significantly with time, so fixed background levels are used. For each of the instruments, the backgrounds vary with the instrument mode, so separate sets of backgrounds are derived for each mode that is present. (Modes are discussed below). The PFR and WFA backgrounds also depend significantly on bit rate. For the RAR the background level selected is the lowest 3% of the data for each frequency; for the PFR and WFA, the background level selected is the lowest 10% of the data for each frequency. The higher number is chosen for the WFA because the data are substantially noisier than the RAR. It should be noted that this type of background subtraction will remove any signal at a given frequency that is constant throughout the day. An example is the quasithermal noise line ("plasma line") in the RAR data, when the density does not vary throughout the day. Note that for 10-day and 26-day plots, in particular, the background determination might result from a few hours of very low intensity data, which will cause all the other data, referenced to that background, to appear enhanced. This is an unfortunate consequence of determining the background levels from intervals of minimum data intensity. 4. Modes and other labels - Each of the instruments has several modes that affect the data display. The telemetry bit rate is also an important parameter. The key modes and the bit rate are shown on the dynamic spectrum as the thickness (or nonexistence) of a line. The RAR Hi and Lo bands are plotted in separate panels because they are commanded separately. For each band, the spin-plane and spin-axis antennas can be either summed or separate. If the RAR Hi or Lo band instrument is in summed mode, then a white line for the appropriate band is present under the RAR plot. Summed mode provides data used for 3-dimensional direction finding at the expense of a higher background level. Because the backgrounds will differ between summed and separate modes, backgrounds are calculated for both modes when they are present. Although the RAR is typically operated in a mode where measurements are made at all 76 frequencies, there are times when only a subset of the frequencies are sampled (called Measure mode). In these cases, the data plotted are interpolated in frequency to give a clearer picture of the events that might be taking place. These intervals are evident from the appearance of the data, which is smoothed in frequency; see Nov. 6, 1990, where the RAR Lo band is in Measure mode for the first 18 hours of the day. This example also shows the RAR hi band in a rarely-used, single frequency mode. If the Measure mode data occupy less than 10% of the day; they are not interpolated, because the events occurring at these times should be clear from the non-Measure mode data, and it is useful to see which frequencies are being sampled. The Jupiter flyby interval (e.g., Feb. 8, 1992) includes examples of short intervals of measure mode. The bit rate significantly affects the PFR and WFA backgrounds. If the science data bit rate is 1024 bps, it is indicated by a thick line, 512 bps is indicated by a thin line, and low ("emergency") bit rates, either 256 or 126 bps, by no line. The PFR operates in one of 3 modes - fast scan, slow scan, or fixed tune (see Stone et al., 1992). These 3 modes have different backgrounds and generate different interferences for the WFA instrument. Fast scan is shown by the white line under the PFR plot, slow scan is in progress if there is no line, and fixed tune is a single frequency mode (evident from the PFR data display), typically used in 1 hour/day intervals. The WFA instruments can sample either the electrical (E) antennas or the (B-field) search coil. For the low band of the WFA B field data (< 8 Hz), either By or Bz data are telemetered. The available parameter is shown by the white line above the B (WFA) plot (present=By, absent=Bz). 5. Interpolation - In addition to the interpolation discussed above for the RAR, the RAR data are interpolated to remove data gaps of 384 seconds or less. We interpolate the RAR data because the events observed in the RAR, such as solar type II and type III radio bursts, are mostly smoothly varying on time scales of a few minutes. Therefore, they are easier to visualize and interpret when data gaps are interpolated. For the events in the PFR and WFA data, predominantly bursty wave events, interpolation is not necessary and not performed. An exception occurs when the data telemetry rate is either 256 or 128 bps; then the WFA data are interpolated in time because they are not sampled every 128 sec. Finally, the RAR Hi band data, for which there are only 12 channels of data, are interpolated to fit a logarithmic frequency scale with 37 equivalent frequencies. 6. Interference and other issues affecting data interpretation - Each of these instruments, like all sensitive wave receivers, is affected by interference from other sources. For the RAR Hi band, an interference signal at 81 kHz is produced by the Ulysses GAS instrument. Depending on the mode in which the GAS instrument is operating, this interference can occur from 0 to 24 hours per day. If an algorithm determines that this interference is present in more than about 10% the RAR data for the day, we remove the 80 kHz data and interpolate from adjacent frequencies. The RAR Hi band also has an enhanced background at 120 kHz (source unknown). Subtraction of this enhanced background can cause artifacts in other events, like type III bursts. See Nov. 30, 1990 as an example. The RAR Lo band has an interference line at 8.75 kHz and odd harmonics caused by the Ulysses traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), which is part of the high gain telemetry system. In general, this signal is removed by the background subtraction, sometimes producing artifacts in weak radio events or the thermal noise spectrum at these frequencies The PFR experiences interference from the URAP Sounder; these data are removed from the plots and appear as short data gaps. The background levels of the PFR depend on bit rate, PFR mode, and the cadence of the URAP Fast Envelope Sampler (FES data not presented in these plots); these background variations can affect the appearance of events at the transition from one mode to another. The WFA data are affected by numerous interferences, of which the URAP PFR is the dominant source. WFA "backgrounds" vary significantly depending on whether the PFR is in fast or slow scan mode or fixed tune, so separate backgrounds are calculated for each of these. The URAP Sounder also causes interference; these data are removed from the plots and appear as short data gaps. Spacecraft thruster operations produce a variety of artifacts in the data; since we have no indication of these in our telemetry, they are not flagged on the plots. Examples may be seen on Feb 23, 1995 at 12:00 and on Feb. 25, 1995 at 15:00. An interesting "interference" is seen to disappear on Dec. 17, 1990; this is when the spacecraft nutation was stopped. This is best seen on the 26- day plots. To summarize, there are a variety of artifacts in the wave data that affect interpretation. These can result from corrupted telemetry values (producing bad pixels (most evident in the RAR plots, see March 23, 1993, from 6:00-14:00, or August 16, 1991, a very good example of very bad data quality), interferences (e.g., non-physical, block-like structures sometimes seen in the highest frequencies of the WFA E and B data (see March 14, 1995)), or changes of the instrument mode or the physical medium (e.g., a short interval of data with a very low signal level defines a background for the rest of the day that is not appropriate; see Nov. 4, 1990, when the Ex antenna was deployed). 7. Spacecraft location - At the lower left on the plots, 4 parameters related to the location of Ulysses at the mid-time of the plot are printed: a) the Ulysses-Sun (U-S) distance in AU, b) the heliographic latitude (Hlat_U) of Ulysses in degrees, c) the Ulysses-Sun-Earth (U-S-E) angle in degrees, and d) the Ulysses-Jupiter (U-J) distance in AU. These are among the most relevant parameters for interpreting the URAP data. Additional parameters, as well as a graphic showing the Ulysses location relative to the Sun, Earth, and Jupiter, can be found at the URAP Home Page at Goddard Space Flight Center (see below). 8. For additional information on these plots or on the URAP data, contact the PI of the URAP investigation, Dr. Robert MacDowall, at phone: 1-301-286-2608 fax: 1-301-286-1683 email: robert.macdowall@gsfc.nasa.gov. The URL for the URAP Home Page at Goddard Space Flight Center is http://urap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

8) Ulysses URAP RAR 144 Second Data in ASCII maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Ulysses/URAP/RAR.ASCII.PT144S
Start:1990-11-03 19:30:00 Observatory:Ulysses Cadence:144 seconds
Stop:2007-11-26 18:30:00 Instrument:Unified Radio and Plasma Waves (STO/URAP) Resource:NumericalData
This data set contains 144 second averages of the electric field intensities from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument Radio Astronomy Receiver (URAP/RAR). The following notes are taken from the Guide to Archiving of Ulysses URAP Data revised January 27, 2010 - version 1.3 ftp://ftp.rssd.esa.int/pub/ulysses/URAP/docs/others/archived_data_user_guide.html Appendix C: USER'S GUIDE TO RAR 144 SECOND AVERAGED DATA FILES The time period of 144 seconds was used for the averaging period because that is the basic cycling time of the instrument. The RAR continually cycles through a list of frequencies. There are 16 lists and the list currently in use is chosen by telecommand. The time period to complete the list is 144 seconds for the high band of the receiver (for telemetry bit rates of 1024 and 512 bps, the cycle time is 64 seconds for bit rates of 256 and 128 bps), after which the instrument begins with the list again. Therefore this period was chosen for the averaging period. The format of the data is indicated by the following Fortran statement which can be used to read the data: DIMENSION F(0:75) READ(1,'(I4,2I2,1X,3I2,1X,5I2,12(/6E12.4),/4E12.4)') + IYEAR, IMONTH, IDAY, IHOUR, IMINUTE, ISECOND, + LO_POL_MODE, LO_SUM_MODE, HI_POL_MODE, HI_SUM_MODE, + IBPS, F The variables are defined as follows: The date and time of the beginning of the averaging period are given in IYEAR, IMONTH, IDAY, IHOUR, IMINUTE, ISECOND. LO_POL_MODE and HI_POL_MODE are the polarization modes of the low and high receiver bands. Their values are defined as: 1: Polarization on. 2: Polarization off. 3: Polarization mode switched during the averaging interval. 4: Polarization mode was unknown (usually due to a data gap). LO_SUM_MODE and HI_SUM_MODE are the polarization modes of the low and high receiver bands. Their values are defined as: 1: Summation on. 2: Summation off. 3: Summation mode switched during the averaging interval. 4: Summation mode was unknown (usually due to a data gap). 1: Summation on. 2: Summation off. 3: Summation mode switched during the averaging interval. 4: Summation mode was unknown (usually due to a data gap). IBPS indicates the telemetry bit rate during the averaging interval. Its values are defined as: 1: 128 bps. 2: 256 bps. 3: 512 bps. 4: 1024 bps. 5: Bit rate changed during the averaging period. 6: Bit rate unknown - usually due to a data gap. F is a vector containing the average signal for the 76 frequencies of the low and high bands. Elements 0 through 63 are from the low band receiver and correspond to frequencies of 1.25+0.75*N Khz where N is the element number (0..63). The frequency channels from 64 to 75 correspond to the following frequencies: F(64): 52 KHz F(65): 63 KHz F(66): 71 KHz F(67): 100 KHz F(68): 120 KHz F(69): 148 KHz F(70): 196 KHz F(71): 272 KHz F(72): 387 KHz F(73): 540 KHz F(74): 740 KHz F(75): 940 KHz The units of the data are microvolt/Hz**.5 measured at the receiver input terminals. To convert to electric field strength the given data must be divided by the effective length of the antenna. This is complicated by the fact that the effective length depends on the antenna impedance which is affected by the plasma conditions local to the Ulysses spacecraft. The impedance will also depend on the frequency. In general, the RAR frequency channels that are well above the local electron plasma frequency are not affected by the plasma conditions and the effective length of 23 meters can be used. When the RAR is in summed, rather than separate, mode the determination of field strengths is even more difficult. Description of the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument Radio Astronomy Receiver The Radio Astronomy Receiver is divided into two parts, a low frequency receiver and a high frequency receiver. The low frequency receiver has 64 channels that cover the frequency range from 1.25 to 48.0 kHz in linear steps of 0.75 kHz. The high frequency receiver has 12 channels that cover the range from 52 kHz to 940 kHz in approximately logarithmic steps. The high frequency receiver is usually operated in what is called "measure" mode, which causes the receiver to step repeatedly through a list of frequencies that is determined by a ROM on board the spacecraft. There are 16 different lists and one of them is chosen by telecommand. The different lists emphasize different frequency ranges, so as to maximize the information received depending on the type of phenomena being studied. Some of the lists include all 12 possible frequency channels while other lists skip some of the frequencies. The list that has been used for most of the mission does include all frequecies, but there may be times when other lists have been used. At these times only a subset of the frequencies will be present. The low frequency receiver can be operated in measure mode (with its own set of lists of 8 or 16 frequencies) or in "linear sweep" mode where it steps through a contiguous set of frequencies. In linear mode, all 64 frequencies can be stepped through, or a subset of 32 frequencies can be chosen using the lower half, middle half, or upper half of the frequencies. For most of the mission, the low frequency receiver has been operated in linear mode with all 64 frequencies but there have been periods when it has operated in measure mode or in in linear mode with less than 64 frequencies. During these periods only a subset (8, 16, or 32) of the 64 possible frequencies will appear. Besides the intensity of a signal reaching the spacecraft, the RAR can also, when operated in particular modes, determine additional information about the source of the radiation, including its direction relative to the location of Ulysses, its angular size, and its polarization. This is most efficiently done with the signal from the X and Z axis antennas summed together electronically either with or without a phase shift added between the two signals. Although this additional information cannot be recovered from the averaged data, the mode does have a large effect on the background signal level, so the mode of high and low frequency receivers is given in the data as either summed (X and Z antenna combined) or separate (X antenna alone). Reference: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser., 92(2), 291-316 (1992).

9) Ulysses URAP RAR 144 Second Data maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Ulysses/URAP/RAR.CDF.PT144S
Start:1990-11-03 19:30:00 Observatory:Ulysses Cadence:144 seconds
Stop:2007-11-26 18:30:00 Instrument:Unified Radio and Plasma Waves (STO/URAP) Resource:NumericalData
This data set contains 144 second averages of the electric field intensities from the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument Radio Astronomy Receiver. Units are microVolt/Hz**0.5 measured at the receiver input terminals. To convert to electric field strength the given data must be divided by the effective length of the antenna. This is complicated by the fact that the effective length depends on the antenna impedance which is affected by the plasma conditions local to the Ulysses spacecraft. The impedance will also depend on the frequency. In general, the RAR frequency channels that are well above the local electron plasma frequency are not affected by the plasma conditions and the effective length of 23 meters can be used. When the RAR is in summed, rather than separate, mode the determination of field strengths is even more difficult. The time period of 144 seconds was used for the averaging period because that is the basic cycling time of the instrument. The RAR continually cycles through a list of frequencies. There are 16 lists and the list currently in use is chosen by telecommand. The time period to complete the list is 144 seconds for the high band of the receiver (for telemetry bit rates of 1024 and 512 bps, the cycle time is 64 seconds for bit rates of 256 and 128 bps), after which the instrument begins with the list again. Therefore this period was chosen for the averaging period. Notes on the Radio Astronomy Receiver from URAP User Notes http://helio.esa.int/ulysses/archive/urap_un.html The Radio Astronomy Receiver is divided into two parts, a low frequency receiver and a high frequency receiver. The low frequency receiver has 64 channels that cover the frequency range from 1.25 to 48.0 kHz in linear steps of 0.75 kHz. The high frequency receiver has 12 channels that cover the range from 52 kHz to 940 kHz in approximately logarithmic steps. The high frequency receiver is usually operated in what is called "measure" mode, which causes the receiver to step repeatedly through a list of frequencies that is determined by a ROM on board the spacecraft. There are 16 different lists and one of them is chosen by telecommand. The different lists emphasize different frequency ranges, so as to maximize the information received depending on the type of phenomena being studied. Some of the lists include all 12 possible frequency channels while other lists skip some of the frequencies. The list that has been used for most of the mission does include all frequecies, but there may be times when other lists have been used. At these times only a subset of the frequencies will be present. The low frequency receiver can be operated in measure mode (with its own set of lists of 8 or 16 frequencies) or in "linear sweep" mode where it steps through a contiguous set of frequencies. In linear mode, all 64 frequencies can be stepped through, or a subset of 32 frequencies can be chosen using the lower half, middle half, or upper half of the frequencies. For most of the mission, the low frequency receiver has been operated in linear mode with all 64 frequencies but there have been periods when it has operated in measure mode or in in linear mode with less than 64 frequencies. During these periods only a subset (8, 16, or 32) of the 64 possible frequencies will appear. Besides the intensity of a signal reaching the spacecraft, the RAR can also, when operated in particular modes, determine additional information about the source of the radiation, including its direction relative to the location of Ulysses, its angular size, and its polarization. This is most efficiently done with the signal from the X and Z axis antennas summed together electronically either with or without a phase shift added between the two signals. Although this additional information cannot be recovered from the averaged data, the mode does have a large effect on the background signal level, so the mode of high and low frequency receivers is given in the data as either summed (X and Z antenna combined) or separate (X antenna alone). Reference: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser., 92(2), 291-316 (1992).

10) VG1 JUP CRS DERIVED PROTON/ION/ELECTRON FLUX BROWSE V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/CRS/Jupiter/PT15M
Start:1979-02-28 00:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:15 minutes
Stop:1979-03-21 23:45:00 Instrument:Cosmic Ray System (CRS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : Rochus E. Vogt Data Supplier : National Space Science Data Center Data sampling rate : variable (1 hr for FPHA data, 15 min. for all others) Data Set Start Time : 1979-02-28T00:00:00.000Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-21T23:45:00.000Z (The following description has been adapted from [NSSDCCRS1979]) As its name implies, the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) was designed for cosmic ray studies [STONEETAL1977B]. It consists of two high Energy Telescopes (HET), four Low Energy Telescopes (LET) and The Electron Telescope (TET). The detectors have large geometric factors (~ 0.48 to 8 cm^2 ster) and long electronic time constants (~ 24 [micro]sec) for low power consumption and good stability. Normally, the data are primarily derived from comprehensive ([Delta]E[1], [Delta]E[2] and E) pulse-height information about individual events. Because of the high particle fluxes encountered at Jupiter and Saturn, greater reliance had to be placed on counting rates in single detectors and various coincidence rates. In inter- planetary space, guard counters are placed in anticoincidence with the primary detectors to reduce the background from high-energy particles penetrating through the sides of the telescopes. These guard counters were turned off in the Jovian magnetosphere when the accidental anticoincidence rate became high enough to block a substantial fraction of the desired counts. Fortunately, under these conditions the spectra were sufficiently soft that the background, due to penetrating particles, was small. The data on proton and ion fluxes at Jupiter were obtained with the LET. The thicknesses of individual solid-state detectors in the LET and their trigger thresholds were chosen such that, even in the Jovian magnetosphere, electrons made, at most, a very minor contribution to the proton counting rates [LUPTON&STONE1972]. Dead time corrections and accidental coincidences were small (< 20%) throughout most of the magnetotail, but were substantial (> 50%) at flux maxima within 40 R[J] Of Jupiter. Data have been included in this package for those periods when the corrections are less than ~ 50% and can be corrected by the user with the dead time appropriate to the detector (2 to 25 [micro]sec). The high counting rates, however, caused some baseline shift which may have raised proton thresholds significantly. In the inner magnetosphere, the L[2] counting rate was still useful because it never rolled over. This rate is due to 1.8- to 13-MeV protons penetrating L[1] (0.43 cm^2 ster) and > 9-MeV protons penetrating the shield (8.4 cm^2 ster). For an E^-2 spectrum, the two groups would make comparable contributions; but in the magnetosphere, for the E^-3 to E^-4 spectrum above 2.5 MeV [MCDONALDETAL1979], the contribution from protons penetrating the shield would be only 3 to 14%. The LET L[1]L[2]L[4] and L[1]L[2]L[3] coincidence- anticoincidence rates give the proton flux between 1.8 and 8 MeV and 3 to 8 MeV with a small alpha particle contribution (~10^-3). Corrections are required for dead time losses in L[1], accidental L[1]L[2] coincidences and anticoincidence losses from L[4]. Data are given only for periods when these corrections are relatively small. In addition to the rates listed in the table, the energy lost in detectors L[1], L[2] and L[3] was measured for individual particles. For protons, this covered the energy range from 0.42 to 8.3 MeV. Protons can be identified positively by the [Delta]E vs. E technique, their spectra obtained and accidental coincidences greatly reduced. Because of telemetry limitations, however, only a small fraction of the events could be transmitted, and statistics become poor unless pulse-height data are averaged over a period of one hour. HET and LET detectors share the same data lines and pulse- height analyzers; thus, the telescopes can interfere with one another during periods of high counting rates. To prevent such an interference and explore different coincidence conditions, the experiment was cycled through four operating modes, each 192 seconds long. Either the HETs or the LETs were turned on at a time. LET-D was cycled through L[1] only and L[1]L[2] coincidence requirements. The TET was cycled through various coincidence conditions, including singles from the front detectors. At the expense of some time resolution, this procedure permitted us to obtain significant data in the outer magnetosphere and excellent data during the long passage through the magnetotail region. Some of the published results from this experiment required extensive corrections for dead time, accidental coincidences and anticoincidences ([VOGTETAL1979A], [VOGTETAL1979B]; [SCHARDTETAL1981]; [GEHRELS1981]). These corrections can be applied only on a case-by-case basis after a careful study of the environment and many self-consistency checks. They cannot be applied on a systematic basis and we have no computer programs to do so; therefore, data from such periods are not included in the Data Center submission. The scientists on the CRS team will, however, be glad to consider special requests if the desired information can be extracted from the data. Description of the Data ----------------------- (1) LD1 RATE gives the nominal > 0.43-MeV proton flux cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1. This rate includes all particles which pass through a 0.8 mg/cm^2 aluminum foil and deposits more than 220 keV in a 34.6 [micron] Si detector on Voyager 1 (209 keV, 33.9 [microns] on Voyager 2) Therefore, heavy ions, such as oxygen and sulfur are also detected; however, their contribution is believed to be relatively small. Only a small percentage of the pulses in this detector are larger than the maximum energy that can be deposited by a proton. Heavy ions would produce such large pulses, unless their energy spectra were much steeper than the proton spectrum. The true flux, F[t], can be calculated from the data: F F[t] = ---------------- 1 - 1.26x10^-4 F and corrections are small for F < 1000 cm^-2 s^-1. (2) LD2 RATE is not suitable for an absolute flux determination and is given in counters per s. The detector responds to protons and ions that penetrate either (a) 0.8 mg/cm^2 Al plus 8.0 mg/cm^2 Si and lose at least 200 keV in a 35 [micron] Si detector (1.8 to 13 MeV) or (b) pass through > 140 mg/cm^2 Al. For an E^-2 proton spectrum, the contributions from (a) and (b) would be about equal; however, the proton spectrum is substantially softer throughout most of the magnetosphere and the detector should respond primarily to (a). Dead time corrections are given by R R[t] = ---------------- 1 - 2.55x10^-5 R where R is the count rate in counts/s. Thus, correction to the supplied data are small for R < 4000 c/sec, but become 80 large in the middle magnetosphere that the magnitude of even relative intensity changes becomes uncertain. (3) LD L[1].L[2]. L[4]. SL COINCIDENCE RATE gives the total proton flux (cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1) between ~ 1.8 and ~ 8.1 MeV with a small admixture of alpha particles. Accidental coincidences become subst

11) VG1 JUP EPHEMERIS SYSTEM III (1965) COORDS BROWSE V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/Ephemeris/Jupiter/PT96S
Start:1979-03-03 00:00:35 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:96 seconds
Stop:1979-03-16 23:59:56 Instrument:Voyager 1 Positions Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Version 1.1 ----------- The SEDR based data provided as part of this data set were originally reviewed and archived with the NSSDC and PDS as version 1.0 (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-POS-4-48.0SEC). Version 1.1 includes additional columns not present in the previous version, 96 second rather than 48 second time samples, times converted to 'PDS Style' or ISO standard, and upgrading of PDS labels and templates to version 3.2. The SPICE based data that are also part of this data set were not previously archived with the PDS. This version 1.1 data set replaces previously archived versions. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set consists of Voyager 1 Jupiter encounter ephemeris data in System III (1965) left handed coordinates covering the period 1979-03-03 to 1979-03-16. Two versions, both covering the same time period, but containing slightly different data, are provided. One version was generated by the Voyager MAG team from Voyager 1 SEDR, the other by the PDS/PPI node using the VG1_JUP.BSP and PCK00003.TCP SPICE kernels. Two versions of the spacecraft ephemeris data are provided as an attempt to correct some of the problems in the Voyager SEDR while preserving the ability to reproduce early results. The original SEDR data has a variety of problems which may affect the knowledge of the spacecraft position, or conversely, the timing associated with certain events such as ring plane crossings. The SPICE SPK kernel provided on this disk includes corrections to some, but not all, of the problems associated with the Voyager SEDR. The Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL may issue a new Voyager SPK kernel in the future that will further improve the knowledge of the spacecraft location in inertial space. There are other differences in the in the two versions of ephemeris data that are the result of improvements in the knowledge of some of the physical constants associated with Jupiter and its moons. Since the Voyager era, there have been updates to the orientation of the jovian spin axis right ascension and declination, the radius of Jupiter, as well as the orbital characteristic and other physical parameters of many of the moons of Jupiter. These changes affect the stated position of the spacecraft in jovigraphic coordinate systems like System III without changing the position of the spacecraft in inertial space. The spin rate of Jupiter is not changed from the System III (1965) rate of 9h 55m 29.71sec (870.536 deg/day). The SPICE planetary constants kernel (PCK) contains both the current IAU definitions of the physical constants for the bodies within in the jovian system (as data) as well as the older IAU definitions (as comments). This is an ASCII text file (PCK00003.TCP) and users of the ephemeris data are encouraged to review it. SEDR generated ephemeris ------------------------ Instrument P.I. : N/A Data Supplier : NSSDC (Voyager MAG Team) Data sampling rate : 96 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-03-03T00:00:35.978Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-16T23:59:08.185Z SPICE generated ephemeris ------------------------- Instrument P.I. : N/A Data Supplier : S. Joy Data sampling rate : 48 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-03-03T00:00:35.978Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-16T23:59:56.185Z Parameters ========== SEDR generated ephemeris ------------------------ PARAMETER RESOLUTION/ DESCRIPTION NAME UNITS time 96.0 Sec time of the sample (UT) in the format yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ m65536 counts spacecraft clock counts mod60 counts fds_line counts sc_x R[J] jovicentric (System III) cartesian sc_y R[J] cartesian position vectors: X, Y, and sc_z R[J] Z vel_x km/s jovicentric X, Y, and Z spacecraft vel_y km/s velocity components vel_z km/s

12) VG1 JUP EPHEMERIS HELIOGRAPHIC COORDS BROWSE V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/Ephemeris/Jupiter/PT97S
Start:1979-02-26 00:00:35 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:97 seconds
Stop:1979-03-24 22:49:32 Instrument:Voyager 1 Positions Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set consists of Voyager 1 Jupiter encounter ephemeris data in Heliographic coordinates covering the period 1979-02-26 to 1979-03-24. Two versions, both covering the same time period, but containing slightly different data, are provided. One version was generated by the Voyager MAG team from Voyager 1 SEDR, the other by the PDS/PPI node using the VG1_JUP.BSP and PCK00003.TPC SPICE kernels. Two versions of the spacecraft ephemeris data are provided as an attempt to correct some of the problems in the Voyager SEDR while preserving the ability to reproduce early results. The original SEDR data has a variety of problems which may affect the knowledge of the spacecraft position, or conversely, the timing associated with certain events such as ring plane crossings. The SPICE SPK kernel provided on this disk includes corrections to some, but not all, of the problems associated with the Voyager SEDR. The Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL may issue a new Voyager SPK kernel in the future that will further improve the knowledge of the spacecraft location in inertial space. There are other differences in the in the two versions of ephemeris data that are the result of improvements in the knowledge of some of the physical constants associated with Jupiter and its moons. Since the Voyager era, there have been updates to the orientation of the jovian spin axis right ascension and declination, the radius of Jupiter, as well as the orbital characteristic and other physical parameters of many of the moons of Jupiter. These changes affect the stated position of the spacecraft in jovigraphic coordinate systems like System III without changing the position of the spacecraft in inertial space. The spin rate of Jupiter is not changed from the System III (1965) rate of 9h 55m 29.71sec (870.536 deg/day). The SPICE planetary constants kernel (PCK) contains both the current IAU definitions of the physical constants for the bodies within in the jovian system (as data) as well as the older IAU definitions (as comments). This is an ASCII text file (PCK00003.TCP) and users of the ephemeris data are encouraged to review it. SEDR generated ephemeris ------------------------ Data Supplier : NSSDC Data sampling rate : 96 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-02-26T00:00:35.897Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-24T22:47:56.304Z SPICE generated ephemeris ------------------------- Data Supplier : S. Joy Data sampling rate : 48 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-02-26T00:00:35.897Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-24T22:49:32.304Z Parameters ========== SEDR generated ephemeris ------------------------ PARAMETER RESOLUTION/ DESCRIPTION NAME UNITS time 96.0 Sec. time of the sample (UT) in the format yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ m65536 counts spacecraft clock counts mod60 fds_line sc_x AU heliographic cartesian coordinates sc_y position vectors: X, Y, and Z sc_z vel_x km/s heliocentric X, Y, and Z spacecraft vel_y velocity components vel_z sc_r AU heliographic spherical coordinates sc_lat degrees position vectors: range, latitude, and sc_lon degrees longitude SolEquatorial_to_HG solar equatorial to heliographic coordinates rotation matrix containing 9 1pe15.8 elements HG_to_EarthOrbTrue heliographic to earth orbit true coordinates rotation matrix containing 9 1pe15.8 elements Spacecraft_to_HG payload (spacecraft) to heliographic coordinates rotation matrix containing 9 1pe15.8 elements SPICE generated ephemeris ------------------------- PARAMET

13) VG1 LECP 0.4 SEC HIGH RESOLUTION JUPITER NEAR ENCOUNTER DATA maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/LECP/Jupiter/PT0.400S
Start:1979-03-04 19:41:36 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:0.400 seconds
Stop:1979-03-06 08:18:15 Instrument:Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Data Set Description -------------------- This near encounter data set consists of electron and ion counting rate data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft was within the very close vicinity of Jupiter. This instrument measures the intensities of in-situ charged particles ( >15 keV electrons and >30 keV ions) with various levels of discrimination based on energy range and mass species. A subset of almost 100 LECP channels are included in this data set. The LECP data are globally calibrated to the extent possible. During Jupiter near encounter, the LEMPA (Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer) subsystem was turned on for data collection. Particles include low energy electrons, protons, alpha particles, medium energy protons and ions, high energy and intensity protons, electrons, alpha particles, and Z >= nuclei. The near encounter data are 0.4 second rate measurements within 1/8 of the LECP instrumental motor rotation period (the angular scanning periods, or step period). The LECP instrument has a rotating head for obtaining angular anisotropy measurements of the medium energy charged particles. A gear-drive motor steps through eight equal angular sectors per revolution for data collection. The cycle time for the rotation is 48 minutes or 25.6 minutes during cruise mode, and 192 second or 48 second during the planetary encounter. The data were originally collected in the form of 'rates', which were not always converted into the usual physical units. The reason is that such a conversion would depend on uncertain determinations such as the mass species of the particles and the level of background. Both mass species and background are generally determined from context during the study of particular regions. To convert 'rate' to 'intensity' for a particular channel one performs the following tasks: 1) decide on the level of background contamination and subtract that off the given rate level. Background is to be determined from context and from making use of sector 8 rates (sector 8 is covered by a 2 mm Aluminium sunshield and used for data calibration). 2) Divide the background corrected rate by the channel geometric factor and by the energy bandpass of the channel. To determine the energy bandpass, one must judge the mass species of the detected particles (for ions but not for electrons). The energy band passes are given in the form of 'energy/nucleon'. For channels that begin their names with the designations 'ch' these bandpasses can be used on mass species that are accepted into that channel, which gives the minimum and maximum 'Z' value accepted -- these entries are blank for electron channels). For other channels the given bandpass refers only to the lowest 'Z' value accepted. The bandpasses for other 'Z' values are not all known, but some are given in the literature (e.g. [KRIMIGISETAL1979A]). The final product of these instructions will be the particle intensity in the unit of 'counts/(cm**2 sr sec keV)'. LECP data can also be in the form of flux, whose unit is 'cm**-1 sr**-1 sec**-1'. Near Encounter Channel Definitions for Voyager 1 LECP CH CH LOW HIGH MEAN GEOMETRIC CH Num NAME (MeV/N) (MeV/N) (Mev/N) FACTOR LOGIC cm**2 sr DEFINITIN -------------------------------------------------------- 1 EB01 0.015 0.037 0.020 0.00600 2 EBD1 0.015 0.500 0.020 0.00012 3 EB02 0.037 0.061 0.045 0.00600 4 EBD2 0.037 0.500 0.045 0.00012 5 EB03 0.070 0.112 0.090 0.00600 6 EBD3 0.070 0.500 0.090 0.00012 7 EB04 0.130 0.183 0.120 0.00600 8 EBD4 0.130 0.500 0.120 0.00012 9 EB05 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00600 10 EBD5 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00012 11 EG06 0.252 2.000 0.250 0.00200 12 EG07 0.480 2.000 0.500 0.00200 13 EG08 0.853 2.000 0.900 0.00200 14 EG09 2.100 5.000 2.000 0.00200 15 E44 0.350 1.500 0.500 1.31000 16 E45 2.500 100.000 2.000 1.31000 17 E37 6.000 100.000 6.000 1.31000 18 PL01 0.030 0.053 0.025 0.04020 19 PL02 0.053 0.085 0.050 0.04020 20 PL03 0.085 0.139 0.100 0.04020 21 PL04 0.139 0.200 0.150 0.04020 22 PL05 0.200 0.550 0.250 0.04020 23 PL06 0.540 1.050 0.600 0.04020 24 PL07 1.050 2.030 1.000 0.04020 25 PL08 2.030 4.010 2.500 0.04020 44 AL01 0.980 1.770 1.000 0.04020 45 AL02 1.770 4.220 2.500 0.04020 77 ESA0 2.500 99.999 2.500 0.49350 A-B COINC. 78 ESB0 8.500 99.999 8.500 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 79 AB10 8.500 99.999 8.500 0.05040 A-B COINC. 80 DP09 0.285 5.020 0.250 0.00084 DELTA' 81 DP10 0.480 2.580 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 82 DP11 0.725 1.640 1.000 0.00084 DELTA' 83 PD09 0.285 5.250 0.250 0.00260 DELTA 84 PD10 0.480 2.720 0.600 0.00260 DELTA 85 PD11 0.725 1.580 1.000 0.00260 DELTA 86 AB12 54.000 87.300 50.000 0.05040 A-B COINC. 87 AB13 87.300 152.000 100.000 0.05040 A-B COINC. 88 PSA1 15.800 158.000 15.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 89 PSA2 15.800 49.000 25.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 90 PSA3 16.300 26.200 25.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 91 PSB1 54.000 174.000 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 92 PSB2 54.000 87.300 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 93 PSB3 54.000 59.000 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 94 DA03 0.480 2.450 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 95 DA04 0.780 1.410 1.000 0.00084 DELTA' 96 DZ01 0.405 18.800 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 97 AD03 0.480 2.580 0.600 0.00260 DELTA 98 AD04 0.780 1.480 1.000 0.00260 DELTA 99 ZD01 0.400 19.800 0.600 0.00260 DELTA -------------------------------------------------------- Near encounter data are stored in files for channels from different rate groups indicated by the file names, e.g. V1YYDOY{A,B,...,H}NG0{1,2, ..., 9}.CSV ------- --------- -------------- | | | | | | | | | rate group number | | | | | | | starting time A: 00:00:00 | | | B: 03:00:00 | | | C: 06:00:00 | | | D: 09:00:00 | | | E: 12:00:00 | | | F: 15:00:00 | | | G: 18:00:00 | | | H: 21:00:00 | | | | | 3-digit day of year | | | 2-digit year | Voyager 1 Rate group definitions are listed as below: ------------------------------------------------------- rate channel names group in # the rate group ------------------------------------------------------- 1 PL01 PL02 PL03 EB04 EBP04 2 EB01 EBP01 EB02 EBP02 EB03 EBP03 EG06 3 PD09 DP09 PD10 DP10 PD11 DP11 AD03 DA03 4 EG07 EG08 EG09 EB05 EBP05 5 PSA3 PSB3

14) VG1 JUP LECP CALIBRATED RESAMPLED SECTORED 15MIN V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/LECP/Jupiter/PT15M
Start:1979-02-28 00:00:11 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:15 minutes
Stop:1979-03-22 23:44:44 Instrument:Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) Resource:NumericalData
DATA SET OVERVIEW ================= Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-LECP-4-15MIN) previously archived with the PDS. Data records from the version 1.0 data set provided data for each of 8 sectors, plus the average for all sectors in a separate record for each channel. This resulted in 9 repeated times per channel. Data records for the version 1.1 data set provide all data for a given channel and time period (8 sectors, plus the average for all sectors) in a single record. Other changes to this version include upgrading of the associated labels and templates to PDS version 3.2 compliance, modification of the time formats and flag values. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set consists of resampled data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft was in the vicinity of Jupiter. This instrument measures the intensities of in-situ charged particles (>26 keV electrons and >30 keV ions) with various levels of discrimination based on energy, mass species, and angular arrival direction. A subset of almost 100 LECP channels are included with this data set. The LECP data are globally calibrated to the extent possible (see below) and they are time averaged to about 15 minute time intervals with the exact beginning and ending times for those intervals matching the LECP instrumental cycle periods (the angular scanning periods). The LECP instrument has a rotating head for obtaining angular anisotropy measurements of the medium energy charged particles that it measures. The cycle time for the rotation is variable, but during encounters it is always faster than 15 minutes. Thus, the full angular anisotropy information is preserved with this data. The data is in the form of 'rate' data which has not been converted to the usual physical units. The reason is that such a conversion would depend on uncertain determinations such as the mass species of the particles and the level of background. Both mass species and background are generally determined from context during the study of particular regions. To convert 'rate' to 'intensity' for a particular channel one performs the following tasks: 1) Decide on the level of background contamination and subtract that off the given rate level. Background is to be determined from context and from making use of sector 8 rates (sector 8 has a 2 mm Al shield covering it). 2) Divide the background corrected rate by the channel geometric factor and by the energy bandpass of the channel. The geometric factor is found in entry 'CHANNEL_GEOMETRIC_FACTOR' as associated with each channel 'CHANNEL_ID'. To determine the energy bandpass, one must judge the mass species of the of the detected particles (for ions but not for electrons). The energy band passes are given in entries 'MINIMUM_INSTRUMENT_PARAMETER' and 'MAXIMUM_INSTRUMENT_PARAMETER' in table 'FPLECPENERGY', and are given in the form 'energy/nucleon'. For channels that begin their names with the designations 'CH' these bandpasses can be used on mass species that are accepted into that channel (see entries 'MINIMUM_INSTRUMENT_PARAMETER' AND 'MAXIMUM_INSTRUMENT_PARAMETER' in table 'FPLECPCHANZ', which give the minimum and maximum 'Z' value accepted -- these entries are blank for electron channels). For other channels the given bandpass refers only to the lowest 'Z' value accepted. The and passes for other 'Z' values are not all known, but some are given in the literature (e.g. [KRIMIGISETAL1979A]). The final product of these instructions will be the particle intensity with the units: counts/(cm^2 str sec keV). This figure represents the structure of a single data record. Note that the 'SECTOR_STRUCTURE' (SECTOR1, SECTOR2, etc.) are not columns, but rather a grouping of the DATA_VALUE and STANDARD_DEVIATION columns. SECTOR1 SECTOR2 AVERAGE __________________ __________________ __________________ ____ | _____ _________ || _____ _________ | | _____ _________ | | |||DATA ||STANDARD ||||DATA ||STANDARD || ||DATA ||STANDARD || |TIME|||VALUE||DEVIATION||||VALUE||DEVIATION|| ... ||VALUE||DEVIATION|| |____|||_____||_________||||_____||_________|| ||_____||_________|| |__________________||__________________| |__________________| Parameters ========== Electron Rate ------------- Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Data Set Parameter Name : ELECTRON RATE Sampling Parameter Resolution : 15.000000 Sampling Parameter Interval : 15.000000 Data Set Parameter Unit : COUNTS/SECOND Noise Level : 0.000000 Sampling Parameter Unit : MINUTE A measured parameter equaling the number of electrons hitting a particle detector per specified accumulation interval. The counted electrons may or may not be discriminated as to their energies (e.g. greater than E1, or between E1 and E2).

15) VG1 LECP 3.2 MINUTE JUPITER FAR ENCOUNTER STEP DATA maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/LECP/Jupiter/PT3M
Start:1979-02-22 00:00:11 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:3 minutes
Stop:1979-03-20 23:59:38 Instrument:Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Data Set Description -------------------- This far encounter step data set consists of the counting rate and flux data for electrons and ions from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft was within the vicinity of Jupiter. This instrument measures the intensities of in-situ charged particles ( >15 keV electrons and >30 keV ions) with various levels of discrimination based on energy range and mass species. A subset of almost 100 LECP channels are included in this data set. The LECP data are globally calibrated to the extent possible. During Jupiter far encounter, the entire LEPT (Low Energy Particle Telescope) and part of the LEMPA (Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer) subsystems were turned on for data collection. Particles include electrons, protons, alpha particles, and light, medium, and heavy nuclei particles. The far encounter data are 3.2 minute rate and flux measurements within 1/8 of the LECP instrumental motor rotation period (the angular scanning periods, or step period). The LECP instrument has a rotating head for obtaining angular anisotropy measurements of the medium energy charged particles. A gear-drive motor steps through eight equal angular sectors per revolution for data collection. The cycle time for the rotation is 48 minutes or 25.6 minutes during cruise mode, and 192 second or 48 second during the planetary encounter. The data were originally collected in the form of 'rates', which were not always converted into the usual physical units. The reason is that such a conversion would depend on uncertain determinations such as the mass species of the particles and the level of background. Both mass species and background are generally determined from context during the study of particular regions. To convert 'rate' to 'intensity' for a particular channel one performs the following tasks: 1) decide on the level of background contamination and subtract that off the given rate level. Background is to be determined from context and from making use of sector 8 rates (sector 8 is covered by a 2 mm Aluminium sunshield and used for data calibration). 2) Divide the background corrected rate by the channel geometric factor and by the energy bandpass of the channel. To determine the energy bandpass, one must judge the mass species of the detected particles (for ions but not for electrons). The energy band passes are given in the form of 'energy/nucleon'. For channels that begin their names with the designations 'ch' these bandpasses can be used on mass species that are accepted into that channel, which gives the minimum and maximum 'Z' value accepted -- these entries are blank for electron channels). For other channels the given bandpass refers only to the lowest 'Z' value accepted. The bandpasses for other 'Z' values are not all known, but some are given in the literature (e.g. [KRIMIGISETAL1979A]). The final product of these instructions will be the particle intensity in the unit of 'counts/(cm**2 sr sec keV)'. LECP data can also be in the form of flux, whose unit is 'cm**-1 sr**-1 sec**-1'. Far Encounter Channel Definitions for Voyager 1 LECP CH CH LOW HIGH MEAN GEOMETRIC CH Num NAME (MeV/N) (MeV/N) (Mev/N) FACTOR LOGIC cm**2 sr DEFINITIN -------------------------------------------------------- 1 EB01 0.015 0.037 0.020 0.00600 2 EBD1 0.015 0.500 0.020 0.00012 3 EB02 0.037 0.061 0.045 0.00600 4 EBD2 0.037 0.500 0.045 0.00012 5 EB03 0.070 0.112 0.090 0.00600 6 EBD3 0.070 0.500 0.090 0.00012 7 EB04 0.130 0.183 0.120 0.00600 8 EBD4 0.130 0.500 0.120 0.00012 9 EB05 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00600 10 EBD5 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00012 11 EG06 0.252 2.000 0.250 0.00200 12 EG07 0.480 2.000 0.500 0.00200 13 EG08 0.853 2.000 0.900 0.00200 14 EG09 2.100 5.000 2.000 0.00200 15 E44 0.350 1.500 0.500 1.31000 16 E45 2.500 100.000 2.000 1.31000 17 E37 6.000 100.000 6.000 1.31000 18 PL01 0.030 0.053 0.025 0.04020 19 PL02 0.053 0.085 0.050 0.04020 20 PL03 0.085 0.139 0.100 0.04020 21 PL04 0.139 0.200 0.150 0.04020 22 PL05 0.200 0.550 0.250 0.04020 23 PL06 0.540 1.050 0.600 0.04020 24 PL07 1.050 2.030 1.000 0.04020 25 PL08 2.030 4.010 2.500 0.04020 26 P32 0.310 0.610 0.350 0.09750 E0E2(E3) 27 P1 0.570 0.890 0.600 0.44100 E1E2(E3) 28 P10 4.400 9.200 5.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4) 29 P11 9.200 21.000 12.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4) 30 P16 3.400 18.000 5.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3) 31 P23 22.000 31.000 25.000 1.31000 E5E4E3(E2) 32 P27 34.000 72.000 50.000 1.20000 E5E4E3E2 33 P31 211.000 1000.000 250.000 1.31000 E4E3 34 A39 0.100 0.203 0.100 0.09750 E0(E2) 35 A33 0.200 0.510 0.350 0.09750 E0E2(E3) 36 A46 0.147 2.000 0.600 0.44100 'D1F1,CA' 37 A3 0.460 1.800 0.600 0.44100 E1E2(E3) 38 A4 1.900 4.000 2.500 0.44100 E1E2(E3L12) 39 A12 4.200 7.800 5.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4L23) 40 A13 7.800 21.000 15.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4L23) 41 A17 3.300 69.000 5.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54 42 A24 22.000 31.000 25.000 1.31000 E5E4E3(E2) 43 A28 33.000 62.000 50.000 1.20000 E5E4E3E2 44 AL01 0.980 1.770 1.000 0.04020 45 AL02 1.770 4.220 2.500 0.04020 46 M34 0.150 0.180 0.200 0.09750 E0E2 47 L5 0.470 5.600 1.500 0.44100 E1E2(E3L12) 48 L14 5.800 28.000 6.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4L23) 49 L18 6.800 28.000 5.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54 50 M38 0.072 0.150 0.100 0.09750 E0(E2) 51 M35 0.180 0.280 0.250 0.09750 E0E2(E3) 52 M47 0.124 14.300 0.250 0.44100 D1F2 53 M6 0.530 5.600 0.500 0.44100 E1E2(E3L12) 54 M7 6.170 8.600 6.000 0.44100 E1E2(E3L12) 55 M15 9.500 46.000 15.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4L23) 56 M19 6.800 10.400 6.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54) 57 M20 10.400 40.000 15.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54) 58 M25 48.000 64.000 50.000 1.31000 E5E4E3(E2) 59 M29 68.000 270.000 70.000 1.20000 E5E4E3E2 60 H36 0.099 0.140 0.100 0.09750 E0(E2) 61 H8 0.310 2.200 0.350 0.44100 E1E2(E3) 62 H9 2.300 12.000 2.000 0.44100 E1E2(E3) 63 H43 13.000 82.000 15.000 0.53900 E2E3(E4) 64 H21 9.500 18.000 10.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54) 65 H22 19.000 78.000 25.000 1.50000 E5E4(E3L54) 66 H26 82.000 120.000 100.000 1.31000 E5E4E3 67 H30 127.000 850.000 150.000 1.20000 E5E4E3E2 68 AR SINGLES 69 E0 SINGLES 70 E1 SINGLES

16) VG1 LECP 48.0 SECOND JUPITER NEAR ENCOUNTER STEP DATA maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/LECP/Jupiter/PT48S
Start:1979-03-05 00:00:36 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-03-06 23:59:48 Instrument:Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Data Set Description -------------------- This near encounter step data set consists of the counting rate and flux data for electrons and ions from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft was within the very close vicinity of Jupiter. This instrument measures the intensities of in-situ charged particles ( >15 keV electrons and >30 keV ions) with various levels of discrimination based on energy range and mass species. A subset of almost 100 LECP channels are included in this data set. The LECP data are globally calibrated to the extent possible. During Jupiter near encounter, the LEMPA (Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer) subsystem was turned on for data collection. Particles include low energy electrons, protons, alpha particles, medium energy protons and ions, high energy and intensity protons, electrons, alpha particles, and Z >= nuclei. The near encounter data are 48.0 second rate and flux measurements within 1/8 of the LECP instrumental motor rotation period (the angular scanning periods, or step period). The LECP instrument has a rotating head for obtaining angular anisotropy measurements of the medium energy charged particles. A gear-drive motor steps through eight equal angular sectors per revolution for data collection. The cycle time for the rotation is 48 minutes or 25.6 minutes during cruise mode, and 192 second or 48 second during the planetary encounter. The data were originally collected in the form of 'rates', which were not always converted into the usual physical units. The reason is that such a conversion would depend on uncertain determinations such as the mass species of the particles and the level of background. Both mass species and background are generally determined from context during the study of particular regions. To convert 'rate' to 'intensity' for a particular channel one performs the following tasks: 1) decide on the level of background contamination and subtract that off the given rate level. Background is to be determined from context and from making use of sector 8 rates (sector 8 is covered by a 2 mm Aluminium sunshield and used for data calibration). 2) Divide the background corrected rate by the channel geometric factor and by the energy bandpass of the channel. To determine the energy bandpass, one must judge the mass species of the detected particles (for ions but not for electrons). The energy band passes are given in the form of 'energy/nucleon'. For channels that begin their names with the designations 'ch' these bandpasses can be used on mass species that are accepted into that channel, which gives the minimum and maximum 'Z' value accepted -- these entries are blank for electron channels). For other channels the given bandpass refers only to the lowest 'Z' value accepted. The bandpasses for other 'Z' values are not all known, but some are given in the literature (e.g. [KRIMIGISETAL1979A]). The final product of these instructions will be the particle intensity in the unit of 'counts/(cm**2 sr sec keV)'. LECP data can also be in the form of flux, whose unit is 'cm**-1 sr**-1 sec**-1'. Near Encounter Channel Definitions for Voyager 1 LECP CH CH LOW HIGH MEAN GEOMETRIC CH Num NAME (MeV/N) (MeV/N) (Mev/N) FACTOR LOGIC cm**2 sr DEFINITIN -------------------------------------------------------- 1 EB01 0.015 0.037 0.020 0.00600 2 EBD1 0.015 0.500 0.020 0.00012 3 EB02 0.037 0.061 0.045 0.00600 4 EBD2 0.037 0.500 0.045 0.00012 5 EB03 0.070 0.112 0.090 0.00600 6 EBD3 0.070 0.500 0.090 0.00012 7 EB04 0.130 0.183 0.120 0.00600 8 EBD4 0.130 0.500 0.120 0.00012 9 EB05 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00600 10 EBD5 0.200 0.500 0.200 0.00012 11 EG06 0.252 2.000 0.250 0.00200 12 EG07 0.480 2.000 0.500 0.00200 13 EG08 0.853 2.000 0.900 0.00200 14 EG09 2.100 5.000 2.000 0.00200 15 E44 0.350 1.500 0.500 1.31000 16 E45 2.500 100.000 2.000 1.31000 17 E37 6.000 100.000 6.000 1.31000 18 PL01 0.030 0.053 0.025 0.04020 19 PL02 0.053 0.085 0.050 0.04020 20 PL03 0.085 0.139 0.100 0.04020 21 PL04 0.139 0.200 0.150 0.04020 22 PL05 0.200 0.550 0.250 0.04020 23 PL06 0.540 1.050 0.600 0.04020 24 PL07 1.050 2.030 1.000 0.04020 25 PL08 2.030 4.010 2.500 0.04020 44 AL01 0.980 1.770 1.000 0.04020 45 AL02 1.770 4.220 2.500 0.04020 77 ESA0 2.500 99.999 2.500 0.49350 A-B COINC. 78 ESB0 8.500 99.999 8.500 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 79 AB10 8.500 99.999 8.500 0.05040 A-B COINC. 80 DP09 0.285 5.020 0.250 0.00084 DELTA' 81 DP10 0.480 2.580 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 82 DP11 0.725 1.640 1.000 0.00084 DELTA' 83 PD09 0.285 5.250 0.250 0.00260 DELTA 84 PD10 0.480 2.720 0.600 0.00260 DELTA 85 PD11 0.725 1.580 1.000 0.00260 DELTA 86 AB12 54.000 87.300 50.000 0.05040 A-B COINC. 87 AB13 87.300 152.000 100.000 0.05040 A-B COINC. 88 PSA1 15.800 158.000 15.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 89 PSA2 15.800 49.000 25.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 90 PSA3 16.300 26.200 25.000 0.49350 A 2 PI SR 91 PSB1 54.000 174.000 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 92 PSB2 54.000 87.300 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 93 PSB3 54.000 59.000 50.000 0.94620 B 4 PI SR 94 DA03 0.480 2.450 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 95 DA04 0.780 1.410 1.000 0.00084 DELTA' 96 DZ01 0.405 18.800 0.600 0.00084 DELTA' 97 AD03 0.480 2.580 0.600 0.00260 DELTA 98 AD04 0.780 1.480 1.000 0.00260 DELTA 99 ZD01 0.400 19.800 0.600 0.00260 DELTA -------------------------------------------------------- Near encounter data are stored in files for channels from different rate groups indicated by the file names, e.g. V1YYDOYS{Rate_Group_Number}.CSV ------- ----------------- | | | | | | | rate group # for near encounter | | | 1-5, 17-21, 23-26, 36-40 | | | | | 3-digit day of year | | | 2-digit year | Voyager 1 Rate group definitions are listed as below: -------------------------------------------------------------------- Rate Group CH# CH# CH# CH# CH# CH# Descriptions # -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 18 19 20 21 22 PL01,2,3,4,5 Rates 2 23 24 25 44 45 PL06,7,8,AL01,2 Rates 3 1 3 5 7 9 EB01,2,3,4,5 Rates 4 2 4 6 8 10 EB'01,2,3,4,5 Rates 5 11 12 13 14 EG06,7,8,9 Rates 6 34 50 36 52 E0 (E1) , D1F1, D1F2 Rates 7 26 35 46 51 60 E0 E2 (E3) Rates 8 27 28 29 53 54 Protons, Mediums Rates 9 37 38 47 61 62 Alphas, L Nuclei, H Nuclei Rates

17) VG1 JUP MAG RESAMPLED SYSTEM III (1965) COORDS 1.92SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/MAG/Jupiter/PT1.92S
Start:1979-03-03 00:00:35 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:1.92 seconds
Stop:1979-03-17 00:00:42 Instrument:Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) Resource:NumericalData
Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-MAG-4-1.92SEC) previously archived with PDS. Changes to this version include the addition of data columns not included in version 1.0, the modification of time format and flag values, and upgrade of associated labels and catalog templates to PDS version 3.2. Data Set Overview ================= This data set includes calibrated magnetic field data acquired by the Voyager 1 Low Field Magnetometer (LFM) during the Jupiter encounter. Coverage begins in the solar wind inbound to Jupiter and continues past the last outbound bowshock crossing. The data are in System III (1965) (SYS3) coordinates and have been averaged from the 60 ms instrument sample rate to a 1.92 second sample rate. All magnetic field measurements are given in nanoTesla (nT). The magnetic field data are calibrated (see the calibration description included in the Voyager 1 Magnetometer instrument catalog file for details). Parameters ========== The full LFM instrument sample rate is 1 sample per 0.06 seconds. Full telemetry resolution 'detail' data must be obtained from the instrument team. These data have been resampled at 1.92 seconds from the detail data. The LFM has eight dynamic ranges. The instrument is designed switch between dynamic ranges automatically depending upon the observed magnetic field magnitude and fluctuations. Instrument digitization uncertainty depends upon dynamic range as indicated in the following table (from [BEHANNONETAL1977]). ----------------------------------------------- LFM Dynamic ranges and quantization uncertainty ----------------------------------------------- Range (nT) Quantization (nT) ----------------------------------------------- 1. +/- 8.8 +/- .0022 2. +/- 26 +/- .0063 3. +/- 79 +/- .019 4. +/- 240 +/- .059 5. +/- 710 +/- .173 6. +/- 2100 +/- .513 7. +/- 6400 +/- 1.56 8. +/- 50,000 +/- 12.2 Processing ========== Voyager EDR's undergo the following processing in order to produce these 1.92 second averaged summary data: * Read EDR * Unpack header block (rec. id, s/c id, tel. mode, FDS counts, data flags) * Convert selected time tags to integer time (yy/ddd/hh:mm:ss.fff) * Unpack sub-header block (MAG status words, plasma data) * Unpack science block (MAG counts) * Convert counts to gammas * Apply sensor and boom alignment matrices * Rotate (optional) 1.92 second averages while averaging detail gammas to create 1.92 second averages * Write Summary record Counts are measured onboard using 12 bit words that may represent values ranging from 0-4096. Integer counts are converted to magnetic field units (gammas) by subtracting a zero offset, from the measured MAG value and multiplying this difference by the sensitivity of the instrument. Data ==== The data files are given in ASCII, fixed field width, comma delimited tables. The record structure is described in the following table: -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.92 Second System III (1965) Coordinates ------------------------------------------------------------------- Column Type Description ------------------------------------------------------------------- time a23 spacecraft event time (UT) of the sample in the format: yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss sclk a12 spacecraft clock in the format: MOD65536:MOD60:FDS-LINE mag_id i1 magnetometer ID (1 = LFM, 2 = HFM) Br f9.3 average of detail magnetic field R component in nT Btheta f9.3 average of detail magnetic field Theta component in nT Bphi f9.3 average of detail magnetic field Phi component in nT Bmag f

18) VG1 JUP MAG RESAMPLED SYSTEM III (1965) COORDS 48.0SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/MAG/Jupiter/PT48.0S
Start:1979-03-03 00:00:35 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48.0 seconds
Stop:1979-03-16 23:59:56 Instrument:Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) Resource:NumericalData
Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-MAG-4-48.0SEC) previously archived with PDS. Changes to this version include the addition of data columns not included in version 1.0, the modification of time format and flag values, and upgrade of associated labels and catalog templates to PDS version 3.2. Data Set Overview ================= This data set includes calibrated magnetic field data acquired by the Voyager 1 Low Field Magnetometer (LFM) during the Jupiter encounter. Coverage begins in the solar wind inbound to Jupiter and continues past the last outbound bowshock crossing. The data are in System III (1965) (SYS3) coordinates and have been averaged from the 9.6 second summary data to a 48 second sample rate. All magnetic field measurements are given in nanoTesla (nT). The magnetic field data are calibrated (see the calibration description included in the Voyager 1 Magnetometer instrument catalog file for details). Ephemeris data, provided in 96 second sampled System III (1965) coordinates, have been merged into the data files for this data set. The ephemeris data, generated from Voyager 1 SEDR and provided by the Voyager MAG Team, are part of the data set VG1-J-POS-6-SUMM-S3COORDS-V1.1. The position vectors for times at which ephemeris is not provided have been flagged. Parameters ========== The full LFM instrument sample rate is 1 sample per 0.06 seconds. Full telemetry resolution 'detail' data must be obtained from the instrument team. For this data set, the data have been resampled to 48 seconds from 9.6 second averages. The 9.6 second data were resampled from 1.92 second averages which were in turn resampled from the detail data. The LFM has eight dynamic ranges. The instrument is designed switch between dynamic ranges automatically depending upon the observed magnetic field magnitude and fluctuations. Instrument digitization uncertainty depends upon dynamic range as indicated in the following table (from [BEHANNONETAL1977]). ----------------------------------------------- LFM Dynamic ranges and quantization uncertainty ----------------------------------------------- Range (nT) Quantization (nT) ----------------------------------------------- 1. +/- 8.8 +/- .0022 2. +/- 26 +/- .0063 3. +/- 79 +/- .019 4. +/- 240 +/- .059 5. +/- 710 +/- .173 6. +/- 2100 +/- .513 7. +/- 6400 +/- 1.56 8. +/- 50,000 +/- 12.2 Processing ========== Voyager EDR's undergo the following processing in order to produce these 48 second averaged summary data: * Read EDR * Unpack header block (rec. id, s/c id, tel. mode, FDS counts, data flags) * Convert selected time tags to integer time (yy/ddd/hh:mm:ss.fff) * Unpack sub-header block (MAG status words, plasma data) * Unpack science block (MAG counts) * Convert counts to gammas * Apply sensor and boom alignment matrices * Rotate (optional) 1.92 second averages while averaging detail gammas to create 1.92 second averages * Average 1.92 second data to 9.6 seconds, then 9.6 second data to 48 seconds * Write Summary record Counts are measured onboard using 12 bit words that may represent values ranging from 0-4096. Integer counts are converted to magnetic field units (gammas) by subtracting a zero offset, from the measured MAG value and multiplying this difference by the sensitivity of the instrument. Data ==== The data files are given in ASCII, fixed field width, comma delimited tables. The record structure is described in the following table: -------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 Second System III (1965) Coordinates -------------------------------------------------------------------- Column Type Description -------------------------------------------------------------------- time a

19) VG1 JUP MAG RESAMPLED SYSTEM III (1965) COORDS 9.60SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/MAG/Jupiter/PT9.60S
Start:1979-03-03 00:00:35 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:9.60 seconds
Stop:1979-03-17 00:00:34 Instrument:Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) Resource:NumericalData
Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-MAG-4-9.60SEC) previously archived with PDS. Changes to this version include the addition of data columns not included in version 1.0, the modification of time format and flag values, and upgrade of associated labels and catalog templates to PDS version 3.2. Data Set Overview ================= This data set includes calibrated magnetic field data acquired by the Voyager 1 Low Field Magnetometer (LFM) during the Jupiter encounter. Coverage begins in the solar wind inbound to Jupiter and continues past the last outbound bowshock crossing. The data are in System III (1965) (SYS3) coordinates and have been averaged from the 1.92 second summary data to a 9.6 second sample rate. All magnetic field measurements are given in nanoTesla (nT). The magnetic field data are calibrated (see the calibration description included in the Voyager 1 Magnetometer instrument catalog file for details). Parameters ========== The full LFM instrument sample rate is 1 sample per 0.06 seconds. Full telemetry resolution 'detail' data must be obtained from the instrument team. For this data set, the data have been resampled to 9.6 seconds from 1.92 second summary data. The 1.92 second data were in turn resampled from the detail data. The LFM has eight dynamic ranges. The instrument is designed switch between dynamic ranges automatically depending upon the observed magnetic field magnitude and fluctuations. Instrument digitization uncertainty depends upon dynamic range as indicated in the following table (from [BEHANNONETAL1977]). ----------------------------------------------- LFM Dynamic ranges and quantization uncertainty ----------------------------------------------- Range (nT) Quantization (nT) ----------------------------------------------- 1. +/- 8.8 +/- .0022 2. +/- 26 +/- .0063 3. +/- 79 +/- .019 4. +/- 240 +/- .059 5. +/- 710 +/- .173 6. +/- 2100 +/- .513 7. +/- 6400 +/- 1.56 8. +/- 50,000 +/- 12.2 Processing ========== Voyager EDR's undergo the following processing in order to produce these 9.6 second averaged summary data: * Read EDR * Unpack header block (rec. id, s/c id, tel. mode, FDS counts, data flags) * Convert selected time tags to integer time (yy/ddd/hh:mm:ss.fff) * Unpack sub-header block (MAG status words, plasma data) * Unpack science block (MAG counts) * Convert counts to gammas * Apply sensor and boom alignment matrices * Rotate (optional) 1.92 second averages while averaging detail gammas to create 1.92 second averages * Average 1.92 second data to 9.6 seconds * Write Summary record Counts are measured onboard using 12 bit words that may represent values ranging from 0-4096. Integer counts are converted to magnetic field units (gammas) by subtracting a zero offset, from the measured MAG value and multiplying this difference by the sensitivity of the instrument. Data ==== The data files are given in ASCII, fixed field width, comma delimited tables. The record structure is described in the following table: -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9.6 Second System III (1965) Coordinates -------------------------------------------------------------------- Column Type Description -------------------------------------------------------------------- time a23 spacecraft event time (UT) of the sample in the format: yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss sclk a12 spacecraft clock in the format: MOD65536:MOD60:FDS-LINE mag_id i1 magnetometer ID (1 = LFM, 2 = HFM) Br f9.3 average of detail magnetic field R component in nT Btheta f9.3 average of detail magnetic field Theta component in nT Bphi f9.3 average of detail magnetic field Phi component in

20) VG1 JUP PLS PLASMA DERIVED ION MOMENTS 96.0 SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Jupiter/PT96.0S
Start:1979-03-01 12:04:12 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:96.0 seconds
Stop:1979-03-05 16:45:54 Instrument:Plasma Spectrometer (PLS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-PLS-5-ION-MOM-96.0SEC) previously archived with the PDS. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set contains the best estimates of the total ion density at Jupiter during the Voyager 1 encounter in the PLS voltage range (10-5950 eV/Q). It is calculated using the method of [MCNUTTETAL1981] which to first order consists of taking the total measured current and dividing by the collector area and plasma bulk velocity. This method is only accurate for high mach number flows directly into the detector, and may result in underestimates of the total density of a factor of 2 in the outer magnetosphere. Thus absolute densities should be treated with caution, but density variations in the data set can be trusted. The low resolution mode density is used before 1979 63 1300, after this the larger of the high and low resolution mode densities in a 96 sec period is used since the L-mode spectra often are saturated. Corotation is assumed inside L=17.5, and a constant velocity component of 200 km/s into the D cup is used outside of this. These are the densities given in [MCNUTTETAL1981] corrected by a factor of 1.209 (.9617) for densities obtained from the side (main) sensor. This correction is due to a better calculation of the effective area of the sensors. Data format: column 1 is time (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ), column 2 is the moment density in cm^-3. Each row has format (a24, 1x, 1pe9.2). Values of -9.99e+10 indicate that the parameter could not be obtained from the data using the standard analysis technique. Additional information about this data set and the instrument which produced it can be found elsewhere in this catalog. An overview of the data in this data set can be found in [MCNUTTETAL1981] and a complete instrument description can be found in [BRIDGEETAL1977]. Processing Level Id : 5 Software Flag : Y Parameters ========== Ion Density ----------- Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Sampling Parameter Resolution : 96.000000 Sampling Parameter Interval : 96.000000 Minimum Available Sampling Int : 96.000000 Data Set Parameter Unit : EV Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND A derived parameter equaling the number of ions per unit volume over a specified range of ion energy, energy/charge, or energy/nucleon. Discrimination with regard to mass and or charge state is necessary to obtain this quantity, however, mass and charge state are often assumed due to instrument limitations. Many different forms of ion density are derived. Some are distinguished by their composition (N+, proton, ion, etc.) or their method of derivation (Maxwellian fit, method of moments). In some cases, more than one type of density will be provided in a single data set. In general, if more than one ion species is analyzed, either by moment or fit, a total density will be provided which is the sum of the ion densities. If a plasma component does not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, in which case the density of each Maxwellian is given. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE ION CURRENT PARTICLE MULTIPLE PARAMETERS Important Instrument Parameters : 1 (for all parameters) Processing ========== Processing History ------------------ Source Data Set ID : VG1-PLS Software : MOMANAL Product Data Set ID : VG1-J-PLS-5-ION-MOM-96.0SEC Software 'MOMANAL' ------------------ Software

21) VG1 JUP PLS DERIVED ION OUTBND MAGSHTH M-MODE 96SEC V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PLS/Jupiter/PT96S
Start:1979-03-13 00:01:43 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:96 seconds
Stop:1979-03-24 23:20:06 Instrument:Plasma Spectrometer (PLS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : John D. Richardson Data Supplier : John D. Richardson Data sampling rate : 96 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-03-13T00:01:43.491Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-24T23:20:06.519Z This data set contains plasma parameters from Voyager 1 outbound from Jupiter from the magnetotail through the solar wind. Fit and moment parameters are given; the fit parameters assume a single, isotropic convected proton Maxwellian distribution. Although magnetotail data is provided, these data are unreliable; the density can be used as an upper limit to the actual density. Solar wind data are also provided and are reliable. These M mode data are the best data to use in most regions of the magnetosheath. Magnetotail data in this data set are included mainly to put the sheath data in context and show magnetopause. Parameters ========== Data Set Parameter 'ION DENSITY' -------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Data Set Parameter Unit : CM**-3 Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter equaling the number of ions per unit volume over a specified range of ion energy, energy/charge, or energy/nucleon. Discrimination with regard to mass and or charge state is necessary to obtain this quantity, however, mass and charge state are often assumed due to instrument limitations. Many different forms of ion density are derived. Some are distinguished by their composition (N+, proton, ion, etc.) or their method of derivation (Maxwellian fit, method of moments). In some cases, more than one type of density will be provided in a single data set. In general, if more than one ion species is analyzed, either by moment or fit, a total density will be provided which is the sum of the ion densities. If a plasma component does not have a Maxwellian distribution the actual distribution can be represented as the sum of several Maxwellians, in which case the density of each Maxwellian is given. Data Set Parameter 'ION THERMAL SPEED' -------------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A measure of the velocity associated with the temperature of the ions. It is formally defined as the Ion Thermal Speed squared equals two times K (Boltzmann's constant) times T (temperature of ion) divided by M (ion mass). Each component of a plasma has a thermal speed associated with it. Data Set Parameter 'ION VELOCITY' --------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : ION VELOCITY Data Set Parameter Unit : KM/S Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Minimum Sampling Parameter : UNK Maximum Sampling Parameter : UNK Sampling Parameter Interval : UNK Minimum Available Sampling Int : UNK Noise Level : UNK A derived parameter giving the average speed and direction of motion of a plasma or plasma component. The velocity can be obtained by taking the first moment of the distribution function or by simulating the observations with some known distribution function, usually a Maxwellian, to the distribution. Velocities are given in heliographic (RTN) coordinates: R is radially away from sun, T is in plane of sun's equator and positive in the direction of solar rotation, N completes right-handed system. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION VELOCITY Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Instrument Parameter Name : ION RATE Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION THERMAL SPEED Instrument Parameter Name : ION CURRENT Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : ION DENSITY Instrument Parameter Name : PARTICLE MULTIPLE PARAMETERS Important Instrument Parameters : 1 Data Coverage ============= Filename Records Start Stop ------------------------------------------------------------------- T79072 10232 1979-03-13T00:01:43.491Z 1979-03-24T23:20:06.519Z

22) Spectrograms of Voyager 1 PRA Highband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 48 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/DisplayData/Voyager1/PRA/Jupiter/High.P1D
Start:1979-02-01 00:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-04-13 23:59:59 Instrument:Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:DisplayData
Spectrogram plots in GIF format derived from Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) Highband receiver daily files during Jupiter Encounter (1979-02-01 to 1979-04-13). These plots are available for both polarization channels. The color scale of these plots represent the electric field power spectral density in units of millibels. Across the top of each spectrogram in the spacecraft and instrument name, the name of the binary data file that was used to create this plot, the polarization channel (Left or Right) and the date in the format YYMMDD. The data set provides 48 second resolution highband radio mean power data in units of millibels. The high-band receiver consisted of 128 channels of 200 kHz bandwidth each, with center frequencies spaced at 307.2 kHz intervals from 1.2 MHz to 40.4 MHz. The highband receiver was designed especially for the observation of Jovian decametric radio emissions. The PRA radiometer was usually operated routinely in the so-called POLLO sweeping mode, in which all 198 frequency channels of the high- and low-band receivers together were swept in 6 sec, dwelling at each channel for 25 msec. From one step to the next in the channel switching sequence, the antenna polarization sense was reversed, i.e., was changed from RH to LH or vice versa. Thus the time required for making a measurement of both the RH and LH intensity components at both senses of elliptical polarization at a given frequency was 12 sec. The data consists of successive averages of 4 pairs of RH and LH intensity measurements, each average spanning an interval of 48 sec. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. Note: The polarization indicated is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein.

23) Voyager 1 PRA Highband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 48 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PRA/Jupiter/High.PT48S
Start:1979-02-01 00:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-04-13 23:59:59 Instrument:Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) Highband receiver daily files during Jupiter Encounter (1979-02-01 to 1979-04-13). Associated with these binary data are a series of quick-look GIF plots created using the binary data. The plots are available for both polarization channels. The data set provides 48 second resolution highband radio mean power data in units of millibels. The high-band receiver consisted of 128 channels of 200 kHz bandwidth each, with center frequencies spaced at 307.2 kHz intervals from 1.2 MHz to 40.4 MHz. The highband receiver was designed especially for the observation of Jovian decametric radio emissions. The PRA radiometer was usually operated routinely in the so-called POLLO sweeping mode, in which all 198 frequency channels of the high- and low-band receivers together were swept in 6 sec, dwelling at each channel for 25 msec. From one step to the next in the channel switching sequence, the antenna polarization sense was reversed, i.e., was changed from RH to LH or vice versa. Thus the time required for making a measurement of both the RH and LH intensity components at both senses of elliptical polarization at a given frequency was 12 sec. The data consists of successive averages of 4 pairs of RH and LH intensity measurements, each average spanning an interval of 48 sec. The format of these binary data files is as follows: file separation variable year, month, day information millisecond decimal value of the day Integer array (128,2) for 128 left and right channels (NOTE 128 channels for Hi-band; 70 channels for Lo-band) file separation variable There is an IDL program that reads these files into an IDL-format save set. See Information URL for a link to this file. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. Note: The polarization indicated is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein.

24) Voyager 1 PRA Lowband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 6 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PRA/Jupiter/Low.PT6S
Start:1979-01-06 00:00:34 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:6 seconds
Stop:1979-04-13 23:59:08 Instrument:Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
(Description based on material from VG1_PRA_JUP_HRES_DS.CAT) Voyager 1 Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Jupiter encounter (1979-01-06 to 1979-04-13). The data set provides 6 second high resolution lowband radio mean power data. The data are provided for 70 instrument channels, covering 1.2 to 1326.0 kHz. This data set (VG1-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0) contains data acquired by the Voyager-1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument during the Jupiter encounter. The bounding time interval set for most Voyager 1 Jupiter PDS data sets is the Voyager project defined 'far encounter' mission phase boundary (1979-02-28 to 1979-03-22). Since, however, the PRA instrument is able to observe planetary phenomenon at much larger ranges than other fields and particles experiments, this boundary is artificial with respect to PRA. Hence, PRA lowband data provided here cover the entire Jupiter Encounter Phase (1979-01-06 to 1979-04-13). Data from beyond the far encounter interval is contained in the cruise data archive which is available from the NSSDC. VG1-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0 contains data at the highest time resolution possible during normal operations. The normal mode of PRA operations during the planetary encounters was to sweep through the two radio receiver bands, high band (40.5 to 1.5 MHz in 128 channels spaced 0.3072 MHz apart) and low band (1326.0 to 1.2 kHz in 70 channels spaced 19.2 kHz apart) in a period of 6 seconds. The receivers measured, on alternate samples, the left hand circular and right hand circular (radio definition) power. Measured Parameters =================== The data here are from the low frequency receiver band and are 'packaged' into spacecraft major frame records. Each major frame is 48 seconds long or eight sweeps through the PRA receiver. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. The data format is ASCII and consists of a time indicator followed by an array containing the eight low band sweeps. Time is spacecraft event time (SCET) which is basically universal time at the spacecraft. Specifically, time is in the form of YYMMDD and seconds into YYMMDD. Both are written as I6. Example: July 1, 1979 at 12 hours SCET would be 790701, 43200. The seconds correspond, to the nearest second, to the start of the sweep (which occurs in PRA high band). The first value in low band (1326.0 kHz) occurs some 3.9 seconds after this time and samples at successively lower frequencies are spaced 0.03 seconds apart. Only one time is given for the entire major frame, thus the start of each sweep is the time given plus 6 times the sweep number minus 1 (i.e., 0 through 7). The data array is dimensioned as 71 X 8 and written as I4 format (i.e. 568I4). The '8' corresponds to the eight PRA sweeps. The lowest 68 of the 70 low band channels (1287.6 to 1.2 kHz) are in positions 2-69. Positions 70-71 should be ignored. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. In position 1 of each sweep is a status word where the 12 least significant bits have used, although not all 12 have meaning for PRA low band. Numbering those bits 0 for least significant to 11 for most significant, the bits that have meaning are as follows: bit 0: 15 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 1: 30 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 2: 45 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 9,10 (together): polarization of first channel sampled (1326.0 kHz) according to the scheme: +---------------------------+ | | |value bit| | | | 10= | | | | 0 | 1 | |value bit 9=| 0 | R | L | | | 1 | L | R | +---------------------------+ Polarization at successively lower frequencies is opposite to the frequency above it, i.e. either a LRLR or an RLRL pattern. Successive 6-second sweeps start on the opposite polarization as the previous sweep as indicated in the status bits. Note that this polarization is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. If the status word is zero, any data in that receiver sweep should be discarded. Data Coverage ============= The data are stored as 4 ASCII tables (.TAB), each accompanied with a PDS label file (.LBL) which describes properties of the data file. Data cover the following time intervals: Volume ID: VGPR_1201 +------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Filename |Records| Start | Stop | |------------------------------------------------------------------------| | PRA_I.TAB | 35569| 1979-01-06T00:00:34.000Z | 1979-01-30T23:59:47.000Z| | PRA_II.TAB| 39493| 1979-01-31T00:00:35.000Z | 1979-02-25T23:59:47.000Z| |PRA_III.TAB| 41371| 1979-02-26T00:00:35.000Z | 1979-03-22T23:59:56.000Z| | PRA_IV.TAB| 24587| 1979-03-23T00:00:44.000Z | 1979-04-13T23:59:08.000Z| +------------------------------------------------------------------------+ Confidence Level Overview ========================= The accuracy of calibration in the PRA low band is approximately 2 dB, except at frequencies below 100 kHz where it is somewhat worse. Interference from the Voyager power subsystem is a major problem to the PRA instrument, affecting many of the 70 low band channels. This interference manifests itself by abrupt changes in background levels. Some channels, notably 136 and 193 kHz, are almost always affected, whereas, others are only affected for short intervals. Usually, this interference is only a problem when the natural signals are weak. Additional information associated with this data set is available in the following files: +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | file | contents | | http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/VG1_PRA1_INST.CAT |VG1 PRA instrument description | | http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/VG1_PRA_JUP_HRES_DS.CAT | data set description | | http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/PERSON.CAT | personnel information | | http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/REF.CAT |key reference description | | http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/DOCUMENT/INSTRUMENT |ASCII and HTML versions of the PRA| | |investigation description paper | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

25) VG1 JUP PRA RESAMPLED SUMMARY BROWSE 48SEC V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PRA/Jupiter/PT48S
Start:1979-01-06 00:00:48 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-04-13 23:58:24 Instrument:Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : James W. Warwick Data Supplier : Michael L. Kaiser Data sampling rate : 48 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-01-06T00:00:48.000Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-04-13T23:58:24.000Z This data set consists of edited browse data derived from an original data set obtained from the Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument in the vicinity of Jupiter. Data are provided for 70 instrument channels covering the range from 1.2 kHz to 1326 kHz in uniform 19.2 kHz steps, each 1 kHz wide. Data are included for the period 1979-01-06 00:00:48 through 1979-04-13 23:58:24. In order to produce this data set from the original raw PRA data, several steps have been taken: 1. The PRA operates in a variety of modes; data from modes in which the receiver does not scan rapidly through its frequency range have been removed; 2. The data have been calibrated as best we know how; 3. The data have been split into Left Hand Circular (LHC) and Right Hand Circular (RHC) components; 4. The data have been binned into 48-second intervals. Thus, values at a given channel are separated in time by an increment of 48 seconds; each 48-second time interval has associated with it a value for LHC polarization and one for RHC polarization. During data gaps, the entire record is absent from the data set; that is, missing records have not been zero-filled or otherwise marked. Bad data within a record is indicated by the value zero, which cannot otherwise occur. Each datum is returned as a 16-bit quantity; it represents the mean power received in the given channel at the specified time and polarization. The returned quantity is the value in mB about a reference flux density. To convert a returned quantity to flux, use the formula: flux = 7.0x10^(-22)x10^(mB/1000) W m-2 Hz-1 Parameters ========== Data Set Parameter 'RADIO WAVE SPECTRUM' ---------------------------------------- Data Set Parameter Name : RADIO WAVE SPECTRUM Data Set Parameter Unit : MILLIBEL Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND Sampling Parameter Resolution : 0.001 Sampling Parameter Interval : 48 Minimum Available Sampling Int : 12 Noise Level : 2400 A set of derived parameters consisting of power fluxes at various contiguous frequencies over a range of frequencies. Millibels may be converted to watts/m**2/Hz by using the formula for flux indicated above. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : RADIO WAVE SPECTRUM Instrument Parameter Name : WAVE FLUX DENSITY ELECTRIC FIELD WAVEFORM ELECTRIC FIELD COMPONENT MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENT WAVE ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY WAVE MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY Important Instrument Parameters : 1 (for all parameters) Data Coverage ============= Filename Records Start Stop ------------------------------------------------------------------- T790106 1565 1979-01-06T00:00:48.000Z 1979-01-06T23:59:12.000Z T790107 1430 1979-01-07T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-07T23:59:12.000Z T790108 1454 1979-01-08T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-08T23:59:12.000Z T790109 1518 1979-01-09T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-09T23:59:12.000Z T790110 1517 1979-01-10T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-10T23:59:12.000Z T790111 1522 1979-01-11T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-11T23:59:12.000Z T790112 1460 1979-01-12T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-12T23:25:36.000Z T790113 298 1979-01-13T07:27:12.000Z 1979-01-13T23:58:24.000Z T790114 1460 1979-01-14T00:00:48.000Z 1979-01-14T23:59:12.000Z T790115 1535 1979-01-15T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-15T23:59:12.000Z T790116 1424 1979-01-16T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-16T23:59:12.000Z T790117 1442 1979-01-17T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-17T23:59:12.000Z T790118 1440 1979-01-18T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-18T23:59:12.000Z T790119 1371 1979-01-19T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-19T23:59:12.000Z T790120 1396 1979-01-20T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-20T23:59:12.000Z T790121 1540 1979-01-21T00:01:36.000Z 1979-01-21T23:58:24.000Z T790122 1551 1979-01-22T00:00:48.000Z 1979-01-22T23:59:12.000Z T790123 10

26) VG1 JUP PRA CALIBRATED HI-RES LOW FREQ. REC. BAND DATA V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PRA/Jupiter/PT6S
Start:1979-01-06 00:00:34 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:6 seconds
Stop:1979-04-13 23:59:08 Instrument:Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set (VG1-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0) contains data acquired by the Voyager-1 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument during the Jupiter encounter. The bounding time interval set for most Voyager 1 Jupiter PDS data sets is the Voyager project defined 'far encounter' mission phase boundary (1979-02-28 to 1979-03-22). Since, however, the PRA instrument is able to observe planetary phenomenon at much larger ranges than other fields and particles experiments, this boundary is artificial with respect to PRA. Hence, PRA lowband data provided here cover the entire Jupiter Encounter Phase (1979-01-06 to 1979-04-13). Data from beyond the far encounter interval is contained in the cruise data archive which is available from the NSSDC. VG1-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0 contains data at the highest time resolution possible during normal operations. The normal mode of PRA operations during the planetary encounters was to sweep through the two radio receiver bands, high band (40.5 to 1.5 MHz in 128 channels spaced 0.3072 MHz apart) and low band (1326.0 to 1.2 kHz in 70 channels spaced 19.2 kHz apart) in a period of 6 seconds. The receivers measured, on alternate samples, the left hand circular and right hand circular (radio definition) power. Measured Parameters =================== The data here are from the low frequency receiver band and are 'packaged' into spacecraft major frame records. Each major frame is 48 seconds long or eight sweeps through the PRA receiver. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. The data format is ASCII and consists of a time indicator followed by an array containing the eight low band sweeps. Time is spacecraft event time (SCET) which is basically universal time at the spacecraft. Specifically, time is in the form of YYMMDD and seconds into YYMMDD. Both are written as I6. Example: July 1, 1979 at 12 hours SCET would be 790701, 43200. The seconds correspond, to the nearest second, to the start of the sweep (which occurs in PRA high band). The first value in low band (1326.0 kHz) occurs some 3.9 seconds after this time and samples at successively lower frequencies are spaced 0.03 seconds apart. Only one time is given for the entire major frame, thus the start of each sweep is the time given plus 6 times the sweep number minus 1 (i.e., 0 through 7). The data array is dimensioned as 71 X 8 and written as I4 format (i.e. 568I4). The '8' corresponds to the eight PRA sweeps. The lowest 68 of the 70 low band channels (1287.6 to 1.2 kHz) are in positions 2-69. Positions 70-71 should be ignored. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. In position 1 of each sweep is a status word where the 12 least significant bits have used, although not all 12 have meaning for PRA low band. Numbering those bits 0 for least significant to 11 for most significant, the bits that have meaning are as follows: bit 0: 15 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 1: 30 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 2: 45 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 9,10 (together): polarization of first channel sampled (1326.0 kHz) according to the scheme: value bit 10 = 0 1 value bit 9 = 0 R L 1 L R Polarization at successively lower frequencies is opposite to the frequency above it, i.e. either a LRLR or an RLRL pattern. Successive 6-second sweeps start on the opposite polarization as the previous sweep as indicated in the status bits. Note that this polarization is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in [LEBLANCETAL1987]. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. If the status word is zero, any data in that receiver sweep should be discarded. Data Coverage ============= Filename Records Start Stop ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Volume ID: VGPR_1201 PRA_I.TAB 35569 1979-01-06T00:00:34.000Z 1979-01-30T23:59:47.000Z PRA_II.TAB 39493 1979-01-31T00:00:35.000Z 1979-02-25T23:59:47.000Z PRA_III.TAB 41371 1979-02-26T00:00:35.000Z 1979-03-22T23:59:56.000Z PRA_IV.TAB 24587 1979-03-23T00:00:44.000Z 1979-04-13T23:59:08.000Z

27) VG1 J/S/SS PWS EDITED SPECTRUM ANALYZER FULL RES V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT0.0172S
Start:1977-09-05 14:19:47 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:0.0172 seconds
Stop:2014-01-01 00:00:00 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set consists of electric field spectrum analyzer data from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Subsystem obtained during the entire mission. Data after 2013-12-31 will be added to the archive on subsequent volumes. The data set encompasses all spectrum analyzer observations obtained in the cruise mission phases before, between, and after the Jupiter and Saturn encounter phases as well as those obtained during the two encounter phases. The Voyager 1 spacecraft travels from Earth to beyond 100 AU over the course of this data set. To provide some guidance on when some key events occurred during the mission, the following table is provided. Date Event 1977-09-05 Launch 1979-02-28 First inbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1979-03-22 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1980-11-11 First inbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1980-11-16 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1981-02-20 10 AU 1983-08-30 Onset of first major LF heliospheric radio event 1984-06-19 20 AU 1987-04-08 30 AU 1990-01-09 40 AU 1992-07-06 Onset of second major LF heliospheric radio event 1992-10-10 50 AU 1995-07-14 60 AU 1998-04-18 70 AU 2001-01-25 80 AU 2002-11-01 Onset of third major LF heliospheric radio event 2003-11-05 90 AU 2004-12-16 Termination shock crossing 2006-08-16 100 AU 2009-05-31 110 AU 2012-03-16 120 AU 2015-01-01 130 AU Data Sampling ============= This data set consists of full resolution edited, wave electric field intensities from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Receiver spectrum analyzer obtained during the entire mission. For each time interval, a field strength is determined for each of the 16 spectrum analyzer channels whose center frequencies range from 10 Hertz to 56.2 kiloHertz and which are logarithmically spaced in frequency, four channels per decade. The time associated with each set of intensities (16 channels) is the time of the beginning of the scan. The time between spectra in this data set vary by telemetry mode and range from 4 seconds to 96 seconds. During data gaps where complete spectra are missing, no entries exist in the file, that is, the gaps are not zero-filled or tagged in any other way. When one or more channels are missing within a scan, the missing measurements are zero-filled. Data are edited but not calibrated. The data numbers in this data set can be plotted in raw form for event searches and simple trend analysis since they are roughly proportional to the log of the electric field strength. Calibration procedures and tables are provided for use with this data set; the use of these is described below. For the cruise data sets, the timing of samples is dependent upon the spacecraft telemetry mode. In principle, one can determine the temporal resolution between spectra simply by noting the difference in time between two records in the files. In some studies, more precise timing information is necessary. Here, we describe the timing of the samples for the PWS low rate data as a function of telemetry mode. The PWS instrument uses two logarithmic compressors as detectors for the 16-channel spectrum analyzer, one for the bottom (lower frequency) 8 channels, and one for the upper (higher frequency) 8 channels. For each bank of 8 channels, the compressor sequentially steps from the lowest frequency of the 8 to the highest in a regular time step to obtain a complete spectrum. At each time step, the higher frequency channel is sampled 1/8 s prior to the lower frequency channel so that the channels are sampled in the following order with channel 1 being the lowest frequency channel (10 Hz) and 16 being the highest (56.2 kHz): 9, 1, 10, 2, 11, 3, ... 15, 7, 16, 8. The primary difference between the various data modes is the stepping rate from one channel to the next (ranging from 0.5 to 12 s, corresponding to temporal resolutions between complete spectra of 4 s to 96 s). In the following table, we present the hexadecimal id for the various telemetry modes, the mode mnemonic ID, the time between frequency steps, and the time between complete spectra. We also provide the offset from the beginning of the instrument cycle (one complete spectrum) identified as the time of each record's time tag to the time of the sampling for the first high-frequency channel (channel 9) and for the first low-frequency channel (channel 1). Time Frequency Between High Freq. Low Freq. MODE (Hex) MODE ID Step (s) Spectra (s) offset (s) offset (s) 01 CR-2 0.5 4.0 0.425 0.4325 02 CR-3 1.2 9.6 1.125 1.1325 03 CR-4 4.8 38.4 0.425 0.4325 04 CR-5 9.6 76.8 0.425 0.4325

28) VG1 J/S/SS PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER RAW WAVEFORM 60MS V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT0.60S
Start:1978-08-21 05:41:36 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:0.60 seconds
Stop:2013-12-31 05:30:00 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set consists of electric field waveform samples from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Subsystem waveform receiver obtained during the entire mission. Data after 2013-11-02 will be added to the archive on subsequent volumes. The data set encompasses all waveform observations obtained in the cruise mission phases before, between, and after the Jupiter and Saturn encounter phases as well as those obtained during the two encounter phases. The Voyager 1 spacecraft travels from Earth to beyond 100 AU over the course of this data set. To provide some guidance on when some key events occurred during the mission, the following table is provided. Date Event 1977-09-05 Launch 1979-02-28 First inbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1979-03-22 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1980-11-11 First inbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1980-11-16 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1981-02-20 10 AU 1983-08-30 Onset of first major LF heliospheric radio event 1984-06-19 20 AU 1987-04-08 30 AU 1990-01-09 40 AU 1992-07-06 Onset of second major LF heliospheric radio event 1992-10-10 50 AU 1995-07-14 60 AU 1998-04-18 70 AU 2001-01-25 80 AU 2002-11-01 Onset of third major LF heliospheric radio event 2003-11-05 90 AU 2004-12-16 Termination shock crossing 2006-08-16 100 AU 2009-05-31 110 AU 2012-03-16 120 AU 2015-01-01 130 AU Data Sampling ============= The waveform is sampled at 4-bit resolution through a bandpass filter with a passband of 40 Hz to 12 kHz. 1600 samples are collected in 55.56 msec (at a rate of 28,800 samples per second) followed by a 4.44-msec gap. Each 60-msec interval constitutes a line of waveform samples. The data set includes frames of waveform samples consisting of up to 800 lines, or 48 seconds, each. The telemetry format for the waveform data is identical to that for images, hence the use of line and frame as constructs in describing the form of the data. Data Processing =============== Because there is no direct method for calibrating these data and because the raw format of packed, 4-bit samples is space-efficient, these data are not processed for archiving. The data may be plotted in raw form to show the actual waveform; this is useful for studying events such as dust impacts on the spacecraft. But the normal method of analyzing the waveform data is by Fourier transforming the samples from each line to arrive at an amplitude versus frequency spectrum. By stacking the spectra side-by-side in time order, a frequency-time spectrogram can be produced. Data ==== The waveforms are collections of samples of the electric field measured by the dipole electric antenna at a rate of 28,800 samples per second. The 4-bit samples provide sixteen digital values of the electric field with a linear amplitude scale, but the amplitude scale is arbitrary because of the automatic gain control used in the waveform receiver. The instantaneous dynamic range afforded by the 4 bit samples is about 23 dB, but the automatic gain control allows the dominant signal in the passband to be set at the optimum level to fit within the instantaneous dynamic range. With the gain control, the overall dynamic range of the waveform receiver is about 100 dB. The automatic gain control gain setting is not returned to the ground, hence, there is no absolute calibration for the data. However, by comparing the waveform spectrum derived by Fourier transforming the waveform to the spectrum provided by the spectrum analyzer data, an absolute calibration may be obtained in most cases. Ancillary Data ============== None Coordinates =========== The electric dipole antenna detects electric fields in a dipole pattern with peak sensitivity parallel to the spacecraft x-axis. However, no attempt has been made to correlate the measured field to any particular direction such as the local magnetic field or direction to a planet. This is because the spacecraft remains in a 3-axis stabilized orientation almost continuously, and these

29) VG1 J/S/SS PWS RESAMP SPECTRUM ANALYZER HOUR AVG V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT1H
Start:1977-09-05 14:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:1 hour
Stop:2014-01-01 00:00:00 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set consists of electric field spectrum analyzer data from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Subsystem obtained during the entire mission. Data after 2013-12-31 will be added to the archive on subsequent volumes. The data set encompasses all spectrum analyzer observations obtained in the cruise mission phases before, between, and after the Jupiter and Saturn encounter phases as well as those obtained during the two encounter phases. The Voyager 1 spacecraft travels from Earth to beyond 90 AU over the course of this data set. To provide some guidance on when some key events occurred during the mission, the following table is provided. Date Event 1977-09-05 Launch 1979-02-28 First inbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1979-03-22 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Jupiter 1980-11-11 First inbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1980-11-16 Last outbound bow shock crossing at Saturn 1981-02-20 10 AU 1983-08-30 Onset of first major LF heliospheric radio event 1984-06-19 20 AU 1987-04-08 30 AU 1990-01-09 40 AU 1992-07-06 Onset of second major LF heliospheric radio event 1992-10-10 50 AU 1995-07-14 60 AU 1998-04-18 70 AU 2001-01-25 80 AU 2002-11-01 Onset of third major LF heliospheric radio event 2003-11-05 90 AU 2004-12-16 Termination shock crossing 2006-08-16 100 AU 2009-05-31 110 AU 2012-03-16 120 AU 2015-01-01 130 AU Data Sampling ============= This data set consists of average and peak wave electric field intensities accumulated over 1-hour intervals from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Receiver spectrum analyzer obtained during the entire mission. For each 1-hour time interval squares of the calibrated electric field measurements obtained during each hour-long interval in each of the 16 spectrum analyzer channels are summed and then divided by the number of measurements. The square root of the resulting value is obtained and stored as the average electric field strength for the respective channel. During the same hour-long interval, the maximum electric field strength acquired in each of the 16 channels is also recorded and stored as the peak electric field strength for the respective channel. Hence, for each hour, an average and peak electric field spectrum from 10 Hz to 56.2 kHz is obtained. The 16 spectrum analyzer channels have center frequencies that range from 10 Hertz to 56.2 kiloHertz and are logarithmically spaced in frequency, four channels per decade. The time associated with each peak and average spectrum is the time of the beginning of the averaging interval. Given variations in the sweep rate of the instrument (from a minimum of 4 seconds/sweep to a maximum of 96 seconds/sweep) the maximum number of samples in an hour-long interval can range from 900 to 38. Data gaps within the interval can further reduce the number of samples. During data gaps where complete spectra are missing, no entries exist in the file, that is, the gaps are not zero-filled or tagged in any other way. Data Processing =============== The spectrum analyzer data are a continuous (where data are available) low resolution data set which provides wave intensity as a function of frequency (16 log-spaced channels) and time (one spectrum per time intervals ranging from 4 seconds to 96 seconds in the full-resolution data set, depending on telemetry mode.) This data set includes one-hour average and peak values for each channel. The data are typically plotted as amplitude vs. time for one or more of the channels in a strip-chart like display, or can be displayed as a frequency-time spectrogram using a gray- or color-bar to indicate amplitude. With only sixteen channels, it is usually best to stretch the frequency axis by interpolating from one frequency channel to the next either linearly or with a spline fit. One must be aware if the frequency axis is stretched that more resolution may be implied than is really present. The measurements provided in the average and peak electric field spectra included in this data set are in units of electric field (volts/meter). Spectral density units may be obtained by dividing the square of the electric field value by the nominal frequency bandwidth of the corresponding spectrum analyzer channel. specdens = (efield(ichan))**2 / bandwidth(ichan) Finally, power flux may be obtained by dividing the spectral density by the impedance of free space in ohms:

30) VG1 J PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER DENSITY 1S V1.0 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT1S
Start:1979-03-01 19:58:22 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:1 second
Stop:1979-03-21 14:25:32 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= This data set consists of ASCII formatted plasma wave frequency and electron plasma density measurements as measured by the Plasma Waves Science instrument and calculated from the equations of cold plasma theory. These frequency measurements were taken from Voyager 1 electric field waveform samples from Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Science (PWS) waveform receiver obtained during its Jupiter flyby. The data set includes select measurements from spacecraft event time (SCET) 1979-03-01T19:58:22.500Z to 1979-03-21T14:25:32.500Z. The data are separated into day files and the individual data points are taken every 1-second. As will be explained in more detail below, the frequency measurements and therefore the density measurements in this data set are measured from high-resolution wideband plasma wave spectra. To learn more about these spectra and their specific submitted volumes, see the Related PDS Products section in the AAREADME files found in the root directory of this volume. Parameters ========== While the data essential to this volume are the electron plasma densities, there are a number of other plasma parameters included with this data. The data set consists of ASCII files with one record per time step, occurring in 1-second increments. Each record includes the time, magnetic field strength (obtained from the Voyager 1 magnetometer), the electron cyclotron frequency (if available), the frequency of the cutoff or resonance measured, a code indicating the name of the frequency measured, the calculated electron density, and a set of position coordinates for the spacecraft at the time of the observation. Also included in each record are the electron plasma frequency fpe, extraordinary mode cutoff frequency fR=0, ordinary mode cutoff frequency fL=0, upper hybrid resonance frequency fUH, and a quality index. One of these four frequencies is just a copy of the measured cutoff or resonance frequency while the remaining frequencies are calculated using the magnetic field data and the equations of cold plasma theory. Different files are used for each day. Processing ========== The ASCII density data files produced in this volume were derived from measuring the characteristic frequencies from the local plasma. The density was calculated from these data, along with cyclotron frequency data derived from magnetic field data, using the equations of cold plasma theory. In order to measure these characteristic frequencies, this work utilizes a new program that allows the operator to highlight the general vicinity of the cutoff or resonance on a frequency-time spectrogram. Then, an algorithm finds the cutoff or resonance in the region and records the frequency at 1 second intervals. Hence, the automated procedure has a high temporal resolution (1 second) and requires a relatively low level of both manual effort and subjective judgment by the operator. There are two different algorithms used: one for cutoff detection and one for resonance or peak detection. The cutoff detection algorithm is controlled by a small number of parameters that can be set by the operator. The first parameter is the cutoff level. In determining possible cutoff candidates, the algorithm scans the region highlighted by the operator and records two separate points, one above the cutoff level and one below. The closer the two points are, temporally, the steeper the slope will be. Therefore, the operator can change the location of the cutoff level to manipulate where the algorithm looks for cutoffs within the highlighted region of interest. The next parameter is the slope magnitude, which designates the minimum magnitude of the finite difference slope where the cutoff must reside. The operator may raise the slope level in order to scan only for sharp cutoffs, or lower it in order to accommodate less steep slopes, depending on the quality of the spectrum data. When there is more than one possible cutoff, the detection program will display them as cutoff candidates. The cutoff level, slope magnitude and cutoff candidates are displayed by the program for viewing by the operator. While the algorithm chooses the lowest frequency cutoff by default, the operator may override the algorithm and choose any of the possible cutoffs to be recorded. While most of the characteristic frequencies are, by definition, the cutoff of propagating wave modes, there are certain circumstances when the characteristic frequency is denoted as the peak of a wave mode in the spectrum. Because of this, there is an algorithm specifically for resonance or peak detection. Many spectra of interest to this study include Z-mode radiation, which has a low-frequency cutoff at fL=0. Barbosa et al. [BARBOSAETAL1990B] demonstrated that taking the peak of the Z-mode as fL=0 yields the highest consistency in the determination of fpe. Hence, when the Z-mode is enhanced, we utilize the peak detection algorithm to identify fL=0 from which fpe and the electron density can be derived. This algorithm can also be used to determine fUH when an enhancement at that frequency is present in the spectrum. In order to measure this resonance or spectral peak, the peak detection algorithm fits a Gaussian curve to the highest peak within the region specified by the program operator. The algorithm then records the frequency of the Gaussian's peak as the peak frequency in the spectrum. The algorithm displays the spectrum and a darker line which is the Gaussian. Because there may be noise which exhibits a large peak in the highlighted spectrum, the spectrum is displayed along with the Gaussian curve and a vertical line designating where the peak was measured.

31) VG1 JUP PWS EDITED SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4.0SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT4.0S
Start:1979-02-28 00:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:4.0 seconds
Stop:1979-03-23 00:00:00 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-PWS-2-SA-4.0SEC) previously archived with the PDS. Changes to this version include the upgrade of the associated labels and templates to PDS version 3 compliance. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set consists of 4-second edited, wave electric field intensities from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Receiver spectrum analyzer obtained in the vicinity of the Jovian magnetosphere. For each 4-second interval, a field strength is determined for each of the 16 spectrum analyzer channels whose center frequencies range from 10 Hertz to 56.2 kiloHertz and which are logarithmically spaced in frequency, four channels per decade. The time associated with each set of intensities (16 channels) is the time of the beginning of the scan. During data gaps where complete 4-second spectra are missing, no entries exist in the file, that is, the gaps are not zero-filled or tagged in any other way. When one or more channels are missing within a scan, the missing measurements are zero-filled. Data are edited but not calibrated. The data numbers in this data set can be plotted in raw form for event searches and simple trend analysis since they are roughly proportional to the log of the electric field strength. Calibration procedures and tables are provided for use with this data set; the use of these is described below. Use of Voyager PWS Calibration Tables ------------------------------------- The Voyager PWS calibration table is given in an ASCII text file named VG1PWSCL.TAB (for Voyager-1). This provides information to convert the uncalibrated 'data number' output of the PWS 16-channel spectrum analyzer to calibrated antenna voltages for each frequency channel. Following is a brief description of these files and a tutorial in their application. Descriptive headers have been removed from this file. The columns included are IDN, ICHAN01, ICHAN02, ICHAN03, ICHAN04, ICHAN05, ICHAN06, ... ICHAN16. The first column lists an uncalibrated data number followed by the corresponding value in calibrated volts for each of the 16 frequency channels of the PWS spectrum analyzer. Each line contains calibrations for successive data number values ranging from 0 through 255. (Data number 0 actually represents the lack of data since the baseline noise values for each channel are all above that.) A data analysis program may load the appropriate table into a data structure and thus provide a simple look-up scheme to obtain the appropriate voltage for a given data number and frequency channel. For example, the following VAX FORTRAN code may be used to load a calibration array for Voyager 1 PWS: real*4 cal (16,0:255) open ( unit=10, file='VG1PWSCL.TAB', status='old' ) do i=0,255 read (10,*) idn, (cal(ichan,i),ichan=1,16) end do close (10) Then, given an uncalibrated data value idn for the frequency channel ichan, the corresponding calibrated antenna voltage would be given by the following array reference: volts = cal (ichan, idn) This may be converted to a wave electric field amplitude by dividing by the effective antenna length in meters, 7.07 m. That is: efield = cal(ichan, idn) / 7.07 Spectral density units may be obtained by dividing the square of the electric field value by the nominal frequency bandwidth of the corresponding spectrum analyzer channel. specdens = (cal(ichan,idn)/7.07)**2 / bandwidth(ichan) Finally, power flux may be obtained by dividing the spectral density by the impedance of free space in ohms: pwrflux = (cal(ichan,idn)/7.07)**2/bandwidth(ichan) / 376.73 Of course, for a particular application, it may be more efficient to apply the above conversions to the calibration table directly. The center frequencies and bandwidths of each PWS spectrum analyzer channel for each Voyager spacecraft are given below:

32) VG1 JUP PWS RESAMPLED SPECTRUM ANALYZER 48SEC V1.1 maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VMO/NumericalData/Voyager1/PWS/Jupiter/PT48.0S
Start:1979-02-28 00:00:00 Observatory:Voyager 1 Cadence:48.0 seconds
Stop:1979-03-22 23:59:12 Instrument:Plasma Wave System (PWS) Resource:NumericalData
Data Set Overview ================= Instrument P.I. : Donald A. Gurnett Data Supplier : William S. Kurth Data sampling rate : 48 seconds Data Set Start Time : 1979-02-28T00:00:00.000Z Data Set Stop Time : 1979-03-22T23:59:12.000Z Version 1.1 ----------- This version 1.1 data set replaces the version 1.0 data set (DATA_SET_ID = VG1-J-PWS-4-SA-48.0SEC) previously archived with the PDS. Changes to this version include upgrading of the associated labels and templates to PDS version 3.2 compliance and modification of the time formats and flag values. Data Set Description -------------------- This data set consists of 48-second calibrated, averaged wave electric field intensities from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Receiver spectrum analyzer obtained in the vicinity of the Jovian magnetosphere. For each 48-second interval, a geometric average field strength is determined for each of the 16 spectrum analyzer channels whose center frequencies range from 10 Hertz to 56.2 kiloHertz and which are logarithmically spaced in frequency, four channels per decade. Averages are stored in units of volt/meter. During data gaps where complete 48-second intervals are missing, no entries exist in the file, that is, the gaps are not zero-filled or tagged in any other way. Additional information about this data set and the instrument which produced it can be found elsewhere in this catalog. An overview of the data in this data set can be found in [SCARFETAL1979] and a complete instrument description can be found in [SCARF&GURNETT1977]. Processing Level Id : 4 Software Flag : Y Processing Start Time : 1988-02-01 Parameters ========== Sampling Parameter Name : TIME Data Set Parameter Name : PLASMA WAVE SPECTRUM Sampling Parameter Resolution : 48.000000 Minimum Sampling Parameter : 197709051420.000000 Sampling Parameter Interval : 48.000000 Minimum Available Sampling Int : 4.000000 Data Set Parameter Unit : VOLT/METER Noise Level : 0.000005 Sampling Parameter Unit : SECOND A set of derived parameters consisting of wave electric field intensities or electric field spectral densities at various contiguous frequencies over a range of frequencies. The MKS units are: Volts/Meter or Volts**2/(Hertz Meter**2), respectively. Source Instrument Parameters ============================ Instrument Host ID : VG1 Data Set Parameter Name : PLASMA WAVE SPECTRUM Instrument Parameter Names : ELECTRIC FIELD WAVEFORM ELECTRIC FIELD COMPONENT MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENT WAVE ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY WAVE MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY Important Instrument Parameters : 1 (for all parameters) Processing ========== Processing History ------------------ Source Data Set ID : N/A Software : UNK Product Data Set ID : VG1-J-PWS-4-SA-48.0SEC Source Data Set ID : VG1-J-PWS-2-SA-4.0SEC Software : V1J48 Product Data Set ID : VG1-J-PWS-4-SA-48.0SEC Software 'V1J48' ---------------- Software Name : V1J48 Software Type : N/A Software Release Date : 1988-08-01 Node ID : PPI-IOWA Cognizant Engineer : LARRY J. GRANROTH Software Access Description : NOT ACCESSIBLE THROUGH PDS CATALOG - CONTACT NODE V1J48 is a specialized, hard-coded routine to process a specific interval of Voyager 1 PWS spectrum analyzer data around Jupiter encounter. Input is from MSF or CD data sets produced

33) Spectrograms of Voyager 2 PRA Highband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 48 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/DisplayData/Voyager2/PRA/Jupiter/High.P1D
Start:1979-06-01 00:00:34 Observatory:Voyager 2 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-07-30 23:59:59 Instrument:Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:DisplayData
Spectrogram plots in GIF format derived from Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) Highband receiver daily files during Jupiter Encounter (1979-06-01 to 1979-07-30). These plots are available for both polarization channels. The color scale of these plots represent the electric field power spectral density in units of millibels. Across the top of each spectrogram in the spacecraft and instrument name, the name of the binary data file that was used to create this plot, the polarization channel (Left or Right) and the date in the format YYMMDD. The data set provides 48 second resolution highband radio mean power data in units of millibels. The high-band receiver consisted of 128 channels of 200 kHz bandwidth each, with center frequencies spaced at 307.2 kHz intervals from 1.2 MHz to 40.4 MHz. The highband receiver was designed especially for the observation of Jovian decametric radio emissions. The PRA radiometer was usually operated routinely in the so-called POLLO sweeping mode, in which all 198 frequency channels of the high- and low-band receivers together were swept in 6 sec, dwelling at each channel for 25 msec. From one step to the next in the channel switching sequence, the antenna polarization sense was reversed, i.e., was changed from RH to LH or vice versa. Thus the time required for making a measurement of both the RH and LH intensity components at both senses of elliptical polarization at a given frequency was 12 sec. The data consists of successive averages of 4 pairs of RH and LH intensity measurements, each average spanning an interval of 48 sec. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. Note: The polarization indicated is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein.

34) Voyager 2 PRA Highband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 48 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Voyager2/PRA/Jupiter/High.PT48S
Start:1979-06-01 00:00:34 Observatory:Voyager 2 Cadence:48 seconds
Stop:1979-07-30 23:59:59 Instrument:Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) Highband receiver daily files during Jupiter Encounter (1979-06-01 to 1979-07-30). Associated with these binary data are a series of quick-look GIF plots created using the binary data. The plots are available for both polarization channels. The data set provides 48 second resolution highband radio mean power data in units of millibels. The high-band receiver consisted of 128 channels of 200 kHz bandwidth each, with center frequencies spaced at 307.2 kHz intervals from 1.2 MHz to 40.4 MHz. The highband receiver was designed especially for the observation of Jovian decametric radio emissions. The PRA radiometer was usually operated routinely in the so-called POLLO sweeping mode, in which all 198 frequency channels of the high- and low-band receivers together were swept in 6 sec, dwelling at each channel for 25 msec. From one step to the next in the channel switching sequence, the antenna polarization sense was reversed, i.e., was changed from RH to LH or vice versa. Thus the time required for making a measurement of both the RH and LH intensity components at both senses of elliptical polarization at a given frequency was 12 sec. The data consists of successive averages of 4 pairs of RH and LH intensity measurements, each average spanning an interval of 48 sec. The format of these binary data files is as follows: file separation variable year, month, day information millisecond decimal value of the day Integer array (128,2) for 128 left and right channels (NOTE 128 channels for Hi-band; 70 channels for Lo-band) file separation variable There is an IDL program that reads these files into an IDL-format save set. See Information URL for a link to this file. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. Note: The polarization indicated is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein.

35) Voyager 2 PRA Lowband Receiver Jupiter encounter, 6 sec resolution maxmize
Resource ID:spase://VWO/NumericalData/Voyager2/PRA/Jupiter/Low.PT6S
Start:1979-04-25 00:04:00 Observatory:Voyager 2 Cadence:6 seconds
Stop:1979-08-04 23:05:33 Instrument:Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment Resource:NumericalData
(Description based on material from VG2_PRA_JUP_HRES_DS.CAT) Voyager 2 Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Jupiter encounter (1979-04-25 to 1979-08-04). The data set provides 6 second high resolution lowband radio mean power data. The data are provided for 70 instrument channels, covering 1.2 to 1326.0 kHz. This data set (VG2-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0) contains data acquired by the Voyager-2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument during the Jupiter encounter. The bounding time interval set for most Voyager 2 Jupiter PDS data sets is the Voyager project defined 'far encounter' mission phase boundary (1979-07-02 to 1979-08-03). Since, however, the PRA instrument is able to observe planetary phenomenon at much larger ranges than other fields and particles experiments, this boundary is artificial with respect to PRA. Hence, PRA lowband data provided here cover the entire Jupiter Encounter Phase (1979-04-25 to 1979-08-04). Data from beyond the far encounter interval is contained in the cruise data archive which is available from the NSSDC. VG2-J-PRA-3-RDR-LOWBAND-6SEC-V1.0 contains data at the highest time resolution possible during normal operations. The normal mode of PRA operations during the planetary encounters was to sweep through the two radio receiver bands, high band (40.5 to 1.5 MHz in 128 channels spaced 0.3072 MHz apart) and low band (1326.0 to 1.2 kHz in 70 channels spaced 19.2 kHz apart) in a period of 6 seconds. The receivers measured, on alternate samples, the left hand circular and right hand circular (radio definition) power. Measured Parameters =================== The data here are from the low frequency receiver band and are 'packaged' into spacecraft major frame records. Each major frame is 48 seconds long or eight sweeps through the PRA receiver. The data are calibrated and are given in units of 'millibels' which is 1000 times the log of the received power. Zero millbels corresponds to approximately 1.4 x 10^-21 W m^-2 Hz^-1, however, this value is never seen in practice. The minimum values detected, which includes receiver internal and spacecraft generated noise, are about 2300 to 2400 millibels, or about 3.5 x 10^-19 W m^-2 Hz^-1; even higher values are seen at the very lowest frequencies. The data format is ASCII and consists of a time indicator followed by an array containing the eight low band sweeps. Time is spacecraft event time (SCET) which is basically universal time at the spacecraft. Specifically, time is in the form of YYMMDD and seconds into YYMMDD. Both are written as I6. Example: July 1, 1979 at 12 hours SCET would be 790701, 43200. The seconds correspond, to the nearest second, to the start of the sweep (which occurs in PRA high band). The first value in low band (1326.0 kHz) occurs some 3.9 seconds after this time and samples at successively lower frequencies are spaced 0.03 seconds apart. Only one time is given for the entire major frame, thus the start of each sweep is the time given plus 6 times the sweep number minus 1 (i.e., 0 through 7). The data array is dimensioned as 71 X 8 and written as I4 format (i.e. 568I4). The '8' corresponds to the eight PRA sweeps. The lowest 68 of the 70 low band channels (1287.6 to 1.2 kHz) are in positions 2-69. Positions 70-71 should be ignored. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. In position 1 of each sweep is a status word where the 12 least significant bits have used, although not all 12 have meaning for PRA low band. Numbering those bits 0 for least significant to 11 for most significant, the bits that have meaning are as follows: bit 0: 15 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 1: 30 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 2: 45 dB attenuator in use when equal to 1 9,10 (together): polarization of first channel sampled (1326.0 kHz) according to the scheme: +---------------------------+ | | |value bit| | | | 10= | | | | 0 | 1 | |value bit 9=| 0 | R | L | | | 1 | L | R | +---------------------------+ Polarization at successively lower frequencies is opposite to the frequency above it, i.e. either a LRLR or an RLRL pattern. Successive 6-second sweeps start on the opposite polarization as the previous sweep as indicated in the status bits. Note that this polarization is the received polarization, not necessarily the emitted polarization. Correct interpretation of the received polarization depends on the antenna plane orientation relative to the radio source. A good description of this concept can be found in Leblanc Y., Aubier M. G., Ortega-Molina A., Lecacheux A., 1987, J.Geophys. Res. 92, 15125 and in Wang, L. and Carr, T.D., Recalibration of the Voyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement, Astron. Astrophys., 281, 945-954, 1994. and references therein. Missing or bad data values are set to zero. If the status word is zero, any data in that receiver sweep should be discarded. Data Coverage ============= The data are stored as 4 ASCII tables (.TAB), each accompanied with a PDS label file (.LBL) which describes properties of the data file. Data cover the following time intervals: Volume ID: VGPR_1201 +------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Filename |Records| Start | Stop | |------------------------------------------------------------------------| | PRA_I.TAB | 32707| 1979-04-25T00:00:04.000Z |1979-05-28T23:59:14.000Z | | PRA_II.TAB| 34207| 1979-05-29T00:00:02.000Z |1979-06-23T23:59:59.000Z | |PRA_III.TAB| 31652| 1979-06-24T00:00:47.000Z |1979-07-12T23:59:58.000Z | | PRA_IV.TAB| 34416| 1979-07-13T00:00:46.000Z |1979-08-04T23:05:33.000Z | +------------------------------------------------------------------------+ Confidence Level Overview ========================= The accuracy of calibration in the PRA low band is approximately 2 dB, except at frequencies below 100 kHz where it is somewhat worse. Interference from the Voyager power subsystem is a major problem to the PRA instrument, affecting many of the 70 low band channels. This interference manifests itself by abrupt changes in background levels. Some channels, notably 136 and 193 kHz, are almost always affected, whereas, others are only affected for short intervals. Usually, this interference is only a problem when the natural signals are weak. Additional information associated with this data set is available in the following files: +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | file | contents | |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------------| |http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/VG2_PRA_INST.CAT | VG1 PRA instrument description | |http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/VG2_PRA_JUP_HRES_DS.CAT | data set description | |http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/PERSON.CAT |personnel information | |http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/CATALOG/REF.CAT |key reference description | |http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/ditdos/download?id=pds://PPI/VGPR_1201/DOCUMENT/INSTRUMENT |ASCII and HTML versions of the PRA| | |investigation description paper | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

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